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Open AccessArticle

Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Wettability Alteration: Analysis for Low-Salinity Water

1
Chemical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
2
Center for Economic Geology Research, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
3
Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Now with PEMEX, Exploration and Production, Mexico City, Mexico.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031017
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Low Field Magnetic Resonance)
Wettability has been shown to influence oil recovery. This property has become central to low-salinity (LSW) and smart (SWF) water flooding recovery mechanisms research. The challenge lies in the fact that oil recovery results from the combined effects of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions. This demands methods that allow an independent interpretation of wettability alteration contributions. The primary objective of this work is to assess changes in wettability through the application of Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) T 2 distribution and diffusion coefficient, starting with a well-controlled porous system, that is, glass beads, and then a model rock (Berea), in the presence of one phase, either oil or brine exclusively. Subsequently, two-phase fluid saturation was tested. For the glass beads, dimethyldichlorosilane was used to induce a hydrophobic response, as confirmed by contact angle experiments on slides of the same material. Sodium sulfate was used for its known positive influence on oil recovery during LSW and SWF. In cases where alteration of surface properties was expected, a leftward shift of the average T 2 distribution curve modes, accompanied by a reduction on the diffusion coefficient during the aging process was observed. The results of this work confirm that fluid-solid interactions during LSW and SWF, namely a shift in wettability, take place after the injection of low-salinity water. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR T2 distribution; diffusion coefficient; low-salinity; wettability alteration NMR T2 distribution; diffusion coefficient; low-salinity; wettability alteration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medina-Rodriguez, B.X.; Reilly, T.; Wang, H.; Smith, E.R.; Garcia-Olvera, G.; Alvarado, V.; Aryana, S. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Wettability Alteration: Analysis for Low-Salinity Water. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1017.

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