# Power Quality Issues and Mitigation for Electric Grids with Wind Power Penetration

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## Abstract

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## Featured Application

**This work is devoted for investigating the potential & challenges of wind energy systems in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, classification of power quality issues due to wind energy conversion systems, techniques and recent trends for power quality mitigation, and application of reactive power compensation of inverter-based wind energy conversion systems to mitigate voltage fluctuations. Case studies using time series simulation to control and mitigate voltage fluctuations based on Saudi daily load profile and standard test systems are presented.**

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Power Quality Issues of WPP Integration

#### 2.1. Harmonic Issues of WPP Integration

#### 2.1.1. Effect of Harmonics in WPP

#### 2.1.2. Types of Harmonics in WPPs

#### 2.1.3. PQ Indices under Harmonic Distortion

#### 2.2. Voltage Issues of WPP Integration

#### 2.2.1. Voltage Sag

#### 2.2.2. Voltage Swell

## 3. PQ Mitigation Techniques

#### 3.1. Traditional Methods

#### 3.1.1. Harmonic Trap Filters (HTFs)

#### 3.1.2. Active Power Filters (APFs)

^{2}R losses. One of the benefits of the series APFs over shunt is that they are ideal for voltage harmonics elimination. APF makes use of fast switching transistors resulting in switching frequency noise appearing in the compensated current which in turn adversely affects sensitive equipment. To mitigate this problem, hybrid APFs are designed to reduce switching noise and EMI.

#### 3.1.3. Three-Bridge Four Wire (TBFW) Inverter

#### 3.1.4. Dynamic Voltage Restorer

#### 3.1.5. Static Synchronous Compensator

#### 3.2. Future Mitigation Trends

#### 3.2.1. Energy Storage Technology

#### 3.2.2. Transmission Technology

## 4. Simulation of Voltage Mitigation

#### 4.1. Voltage Mitigation and Control

- (1)
- the compensation is computed to minimize the deviation between the actual positive sequence and the reference voltage, hence the overall voltage profile could be improved
- (2)
- the compensation is computed per phase based on the deviation among the three phases and the reference voltage, hence both the voltage profile and unbalance factor are improved.

#### 4.2. Fast Quasi-Static Time Series Analysis

#### 4.2.1. Transmission Systems Tool

#### 4.2.2. Distribution Systems Tool

#### 4.2.3. Overall Simulation Process

#### 4.3. Results of Selected Case Studies

#### 4.3.1. Transmission System Case Studies

#### 4.3.2. Distribution System Case Studies

## 5. Conclusions and Future Work

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

AC | Alternation Current |

APF | Active Power Filter |

BSCFD | Billion Standard Cubic Feet per Day |

CSC | Current Source Converter |

DC | Direct Current |

DFIG | Doubly Fed Induction Generators |

DMS | Distribution Management Systems |

DR | Demand Response |

DVR | Dynamic Voltage Restorer |

EMI | Electromagnetic Interference |

EMT | Electromagnetic Transient |

ESS | Energy Storage System |

FACTs | Flexible AC Transmission systems |

FQSTS | Fast Quasi-static time-series |

FSIG | Fixed Speed Induction Generator |

HTF | Harmonic Trap Filter |

HVAC | High Voltage Alternating Current |

HVDC | High Voltage Direct Current |

LCC | Line Commutated Current |

PCC | Point of Common Coupling |

PCU | Power Conditioning Unit |

PLC | Power Line Communication |

PMS | Root Mean Square |

PMSG | Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator |

PQ | Power Quality |

PWM | Pulse Width Modulation |

PWM | Pulse Width Modulation |

RES | Renewable Energy Systems |

RLC | Combination of Resistance/Inductor/Capacitor Circuit |

STATCOM | Static Synchronous Compensator |

TBFW | Three-Bridge Four Wire Inverter |

TDD | Total Demand Distortion |

THD | Total Harmonic Distortion |

VSC | Voltage Source Converter |

WF | Wind Farm |

WPP | Wind Power Plant |

WTG | Wind Turbine Generator |

List of Symbols | |

$c$ | subscript refers to compensator |

$f$ | subscript refers to final time |

$g$ | subscript refers to generator |

$I$ | current |

$I$ | subscript refers to inverter capacity |

$I$ | nodal current vector |

$i,j$ | subscripts refers to counter serial |

$J$ | branch current vector |

$k$ | subscript refers to time sample counter |

$m,p$ | superscript refers phase a, b, and c |

$n$ | total number of a sample |

$Q$ | reactive power |

$\delta $ | phase angle of a nodal voltage |

$0$ | subscript refers to initial time |

$S$ | apparent power |

$P$ | active power |

$s$ | subscript refers to the width of the time sample |

$t$ | time |

$V$ | voltage magnitude of a nodal voltage |

$x$ | refer to impendent variable in Lagrange’s equation |

$y$ | refers to dependent variable in Lagrange’s equation |

$Z$ | branch current impedance matrix |

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**Figure 4.**Possible compensation alternatives for available reactive power from the inverter ${Q}_{i}$.

**Figure 8.**The IEEE-30 node standard test feeder with WPP at node ‘30’ [56].

**Figure 9.**The voltage of the generator nodes of the IEEE 30-node and the voltage at node “30” which is a potential candidate to install a non-dispatchable wind farm.

**Figure 10.**The voltage of the voltage-controlled nodes of the IEEE 30-node including a non-dispatchable 10 MW wind farm located at node “30”.

**Figure 11.**Reactive power generation from synchronous machines and the non-dispatchable 10 MW wind farm.

**Figure 12.**Active and reactive power generation of a 50 MW wind farm located at bus “30” of the IEEE 30-node.

**Figure 13.**Voltage profiles at PCC for a WPP with reactive power compensation capability, the WPP is connected at the node “30” of the IEEE 30-node.

**Figure 14.**The phase voltages (p.u.), the available reactive from the WPP $Q$ (p.u.), and reactive power compensation ${Q}_{c}$ (p.u.) when the regulators are de-energized.

**Figure 15.**The reactive power compensation and voltage regulator action of Case 3: (

**a**) The pu phase voltages, the available reactive from the WECS $Q$, and reactive power compensation ${Q}_{c}$ (

**b**) Tap changes operation.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Almohaimeed, S.A.; Abdel-Akher, M.
Power Quality Issues and Mitigation for Electric Grids with Wind Power Penetration. *Appl. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 8852.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248852

**AMA Style**

Almohaimeed SA, Abdel-Akher M.
Power Quality Issues and Mitigation for Electric Grids with Wind Power Penetration. *Applied Sciences*. 2020; 10(24):8852.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248852

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Almohaimeed, Sulaiman A., and Mamdouh Abdel-Akher.
2020. "Power Quality Issues and Mitigation for Electric Grids with Wind Power Penetration" *Applied Sciences* 10, no. 24: 8852.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248852