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Article

On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens, Greece
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Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5193; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155193
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology in 5G)
A research contribution focusing on the Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)-enabled solutions assisting in the security framework of an optical 5G fronthaul segment is presented. We thoroughly investigate the integration of a BB84-QKD link, operating at telecom band, delivering quantum keys for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption engines of a packetized fronthaul layer interconnecting multiple 5G terminal nodes. Secure Key Rate calculations are studied for both dedicated and shared fiber configurations to identify the attack surface of AES-encrypted data links in each deployment scenario. We also propose a converged fiber-wireless scenario, exploiting a mesh networking extension operated by mmWave wireless links. In addition to the quantum layer performance, emphasis is placed on the strict requirements of 5G-oriented optical edge segments, such as the latency and the availability of quantum keys. We find that for the dark fiber case, secret keys can be distilled at fiber lengths much longer than the maximum fiber fronthaul distance corresponding to the round-trip latency barrier, for both P2P and P2MP topologies. On the contrary, the inelastic Raman scattering makes the simultaneous transmission of quantum and classical signals much more challenging. To counteract the contamination of noise photons, a resilient classical/QKD coexistence scheme is adopted. Motivated by the recent advancements in quantum technology roadmap, our analysis aims to introduce the QKD blocks as a pillar of the quantum-safe security framework of the 5G/B5G-oriented fronthaul infrastructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum key distribution (QKD); phase-coding BB84; secure key rates (SKRs); advanced encryption standard (AES); 5G/B5G packetized fronthaul; low-latency; coexistence scheme; raman noise; upconverted complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) photon counters quantum key distribution (QKD); phase-coding BB84; secure key rates (SKRs); advanced encryption standard (AES); 5G/B5G packetized fronthaul; low-latency; coexistence scheme; raman noise; upconverted complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) photon counters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zavitsanos, D.; Ntanos, A.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H. On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5193. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155193

AMA Style

Zavitsanos D, Ntanos A, Giannoulis G, Avramopoulos H. On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(15):5193. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155193

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zavitsanos, Dimitris, Argiris Ntanos, Giannis Giannoulis, and Hercules Avramopoulos. 2020. "On the QKD Integration in Converged Fiber/Wireless Topologies for Secured, Low-Latency 5G/B5G Fronthaul" Applied Sciences 10, no. 15: 5193. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155193

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