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Article

Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Ions for Elite Japanese Swimmers’ Physical Training: Subjective and Biological Emotional Evaluations

1
National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, 1 Shiromizucho, Kanoya-shi, Kagoshima 891-2393, Japan
2
Faculty of Health and Sport Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan
3
Sharp Corporation, 3-1-72 Kitakamei-cho, Yao-shi, Osaka 581-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4198; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124198
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Performance and Health)
The purpose of this study is to examine the subjective and objective arousal of elite swimmers during physical training under a positive and negative ion environment. The participants were 10 elite Japanese collegiate swimmers participating in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) Swimming World Cup (age: 20.80 ± 1.39, five males and five females). Each participant went through two experiments (they were subjected to both the positive and negative ion environment and the control environment) within a four-week interval. The training task was a High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) routine for the swimmers. The subjective arousal state was measured using a Two-Dimensional Mood Scale (TDMS). In addition, biological emotional evaluations in the form of an electroencephalogram (EEG) were conducted to assess the arousal state of the elite swimmers. The examination of the change in the arousal level at rest and during training demonstrated that both subjective and objective arousal levels were significantly higher in the positive and negative ion environment than in the control environment. In addition, the average training performance scores were also significantly higher in the positive and negative ion environment than in the control environment. This study posits that the positive and negative ion environment has a positive effect on sports training. View Full-Text
Keywords: training environment; sports; athletes; interval training; biological emotional evaluation; sports sciences training environment; sports; athletes; interval training; biological emotional evaluation; sports sciences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hagiwara, G.; Mankyu, H.; Tsunokawa, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Funamori, H. Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Ions for Elite Japanese Swimmers’ Physical Training: Subjective and Biological Emotional Evaluations. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4198. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124198

AMA Style

Hagiwara G, Mankyu H, Tsunokawa T, Matsumoto M, Funamori H. Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Ions for Elite Japanese Swimmers’ Physical Training: Subjective and Biological Emotional Evaluations. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(12):4198. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hagiwara, Goichi, Hirotoshi Mankyu, Takaaki Tsunokawa, Masaru Matsumoto, and Hirokazu Funamori. 2020. "Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Ions for Elite Japanese Swimmers’ Physical Training: Subjective and Biological Emotional Evaluations" Applied Sciences 10, no. 12: 4198. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124198

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