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Investigating the Effect of Urbanization on Weather Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model: A Case of Metro Manila, Philippines

1
Physics Department, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila 1000, Philippines
2
Applied Research for Community, Health, and Environment Resilience and Sustainability (ARCHERS), Center for Natural Science and Environment Research (CENSER), Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave., Malate, Manila 1004, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020010
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Sustainable Environmental Systems)
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Abstract

The effect of urbanization of Metro Manila, particularly on the amount of sensible heat flux, rainfall and temperature of selected urban and rural areas, was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Version 3.4.1 (WRFV3.4.1) model. National Center for Environmental Prediction - Final (NCEP-FNL) grib1 data from 2000 to 2010 were used as inputs into the model for meteorological data. The Mann–Kendall trend test (M–K test) was utilized to verify the significance of the trends while Sen’s slope estimator was used to quantify the measured trends. Results showed that, on average, the sensible heat flux of Metro Manila is about 1.5 × 108 Jm−2 higher than in selected areas outside Metro Manila. The occurrence of an urban heat island (UHI) effect was detected in Metro Manila by comparing the difference in the minimum and maximum temperatures. For the selected urban and rural areas, the minimum and maximum temperature differences (relative to Metro Manila) are around 0.4 to 2.4 °C and 0.83 to 2.3 °C, respectively. Metro Manila recorded higher 11-year average values of rainfall during the summer season (8% to 64%), rainy season (15% to 305%), and transition season (8% to 232%) when compared with selected areas from 25 to 100 km from Manila. These results show that the sensible heat flux, temperature and rainfall in Metro Manila is affected by Metro Manila’s urbanization. View Full-Text
Keywords: WRF; urbanization; sensible heat flux; rainfall; temperature; Mann-Kendall Test WRF; urbanization; sensible heat flux; rainfall; temperature; Mann-Kendall Test
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Oliveros, J.M.; Vallar, E.A.; Galvez, M.C.D. Investigating the Effect of Urbanization on Weather Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model: A Case of Metro Manila, Philippines. Environments 2019, 6, 10.

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