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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Modified Spacer on Flow Pattern in Narrow Spacer-Filled Channels for Spiral-Wound Membrane Modules

1
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu 802-8577, Japan
2
School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2018, 5(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5110116
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Applications of Membrane Technology)
A modified spacer, which was constructed with arched filaments and zigzag filaments, was designed to improve vortex shedding and generate a directional change in flow patterns of membrane modules, especially in the vicinity of the feed spacer filament, which is most affected by fouling. A unit cell was investigated by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for hydrodynamic simulation. The results of CFD simulations were carried out for the fluid flow in order to understand the effect of the modified spacer on vortices to the performance of arched filaments at different distances. From 2D velocity vectors and shear stress contour mixing, the flow pattern and dead zone flushing were depicted. The ratio of low shear stress area to the total area increased with the inlet velocity closed to 20%. The energy consumption with respect to flow direction for the arched filament was 80% lower than that in the zigzag filament. Compared with previous commercial spacers’ simulation, the friction factor was lower when the main flow was normal to the arched filament and the modified friction factor was close to the commercial spacers. The homogenization was realized through the flow pattern created by the modified spacer. View Full-Text
Keywords: modified feed spacer; CFD; flow patterns; performance simulation modified feed spacer; CFD; flow patterns; performance simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Z.; Terashima, M.; Liu, B.; Yasui, H. Impact of Modified Spacer on Flow Pattern in Narrow Spacer-Filled Channels for Spiral-Wound Membrane Modules. Environments 2018, 5, 116.

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