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Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Open AccessReview Using Pupillometry to Assess the Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex and LC-NE System in ASD
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110108
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
With recent advances in technology, there has been growing interest in use of eye-tracking and pupillometry to assess the visual pathway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within emerging literature, an atypical pupillary light reflex (PLR) has been documented, holding potential for use as
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With recent advances in technology, there has been growing interest in use of eye-tracking and pupillometry to assess the visual pathway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within emerging literature, an atypical pupillary light reflex (PLR) has been documented, holding potential for use as a clinical screening biomarker for ASD. This review outlines dominant theories of neuropathology associated with ASD and integrates underlying neuroscience associated with the atypical PLR through a reciprocal model of brainstem involvement and cortical underconnectivity. This review draws from animal models of ASD demonstrating disruption of cranial motor nuclei and brain imaging studies examining arousal and the influence of the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system on the pupillary response. Pupillometry methods are explained in relation to existing data examining the PLR in ASD and pupillary parameters of constriction latency and tonic pupil diameter as key parameters for investigation. This focused review provides preliminary data toward future work developing pupillometry metrics and offers direction for studies aimed at rigorous study replication using pupillometry with the ASD population. Experimental conditions and testing protocol for capturing pupil parameters with this clinical population are discussed to promote clinical research and translational application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parental Education Attainment and Educational Upward Mobility; Role of Race and Gender
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110107
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Background. The Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that education attainment and other socioeconomic resources have smaller effects on the health and well-being of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. Racial and ethnic differences in the processes involved with
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Background. The Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that education attainment and other socioeconomic resources have smaller effects on the health and well-being of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. Racial and ethnic differences in the processes involved with educational upward mobility may contribute to the diminished returns of education attainment for African Americans compared to Whites. Aim: This study compared African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites for the effect of parental education attainment on educational upward mobility and explored gender differences in these effects. Methods. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL 2003) is a nationally representative survey of American adults. Participants included 891 non-Hispanic White and 3570 African American adults. Gender, race/ethnicity, age, highest parental education attainment, and respondents’ educational attainment were measured. Data were analyzed using linear regression models. Results. Overall, higher parental education attainment was associated with higher educational upward mobility (b = 0.34, p < 0.001), however, this boosting effect was significantly smaller for African Americans compared to Whites (b = −0.13, p = 0.003). Our further analysis showed that race by parental education attainment can be found for females (b = −0.14, p = 0.013) but not males (p > 0.05). Conclusion. African American females are at a disadvantage compared to White females regarding the effect of parental education attainment on their educational upward mobility, a phenomenon which could not be observed when comparing African American and White males. These results advocate for taking intersectionality frameworks to study the effects of race, gender, and class in the US. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Influence of Childhood Conditions on the Whole Life)
Open AccessArticle Title IX Mandated Reporting: The Views of University Employees and Students
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110106
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Per Title IX of the Higher Education Amendments of 1972, many university employees are mandated reporters of sexual assault. University employees (N = 174) and students (N = 783) completed an online survey assessing knowledge and opinions of this reporting requirement.
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Per Title IX of the Higher Education Amendments of 1972, many university employees are mandated reporters of sexual assault. University employees (N = 174) and students (N = 783) completed an online survey assessing knowledge and opinions of this reporting requirement. University employees and students generally reported being quite knowledgeable of reporting requirements. Most university employees indicated they would report an incident disclosed by a student, but students were fairly ambivalent about whether they would disclose to faculty members. Nearly one in five students (17.2%) indicated that Title IX reporting requirements decreased their disclosure likelihood. These findings suggest that mandated reporting policies, as well as how they are presented to students and faculty, should be examined in order to increase compliance and facilitate disclosure. Full article
Open AccessReview Moral Judgment: An Overlooked Deficient Domain in Multiple Sclerosis?
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110105
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system through which patients can suffer from sensory, motor, cerebellar, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. Although cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions are frequently encountered in MS patients, they have previously received
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system through which patients can suffer from sensory, motor, cerebellar, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. Although cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions are frequently encountered in MS patients, they have previously received little attention. Among the most frequently impaired cognitive domains are attention, information processing speed, and working memory, which have been extensively addressed in this population. However, less emphasis has been placed on other domains like moral judgment. The latter is a complex cognitive sphere that implies the individuals’ ability to judge others’ actions and relies on numerous affective and cognitive processes. Moral cognition is crucial for healthy and adequate interpersonal relationships, and its alteration might have drastic impacts on patients’ quality of life. This work aims to analyze the studies that have addressed moral cognition in MS. Only three works have previously addressed moral judgement in this clinical population compared to healthy controls, and none included neuroimaging or physiological measures. Although scarce, the available data suggest a complex pattern of moral judgments that deviate from normal response. This finding was accompanied by socio-emotional and cognitive deficits. Only preliminary data are available on moral cognition in MS, and its neurobiological foundations are still needing to be explored. Future studies would benefit from combining moral cognitive measures with comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and neuroimaging/neurophysiological modalities (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, tractography, evoked potentials, electroencephalography) aiming to decipher the neural underpinning of moral judgement deficits and subsequently conceive potential interventions in MS patients. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Isolated Mammillary Bodies Damage—An Atypical Presentation of Wernicke Syndrome
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110104
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
We report atypical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in a case of Wernicke encephalopathy. The patient presented with isolated anterograde amnesia following a partial colectomy complicated by peritonitis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2 MRI sequences were normal. However, bilateral contrast enhancement of mammillary
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We report atypical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in a case of Wernicke encephalopathy. The patient presented with isolated anterograde amnesia following a partial colectomy complicated by peritonitis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2 MRI sequences were normal. However, bilateral contrast enhancement of mammillary bodies was shown on T1 gadolinium-enhanced sequences. Blood tests revealed thiamine deficiency. The diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy was made and thiamine supplementation was given, resulting in complete recovery of the memory functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Disadvantage, Maternal Psychological Distress, and Difficulties in Children’s Social-Emotional Well-Being
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110103
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
This study used data from wave four of the United Kingdom (U.K.) Millennium Cohort Study to examine whether there is an individual (i.e., maternal education) and area-level social disadvantage (i.e., neighborhood deprivation) gradient to difficulties in social-emotional well-being (SEW) in 7-year-old English children.
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This study used data from wave four of the United Kingdom (U.K.) Millennium Cohort Study to examine whether there is an individual (i.e., maternal education) and area-level social disadvantage (i.e., neighborhood deprivation) gradient to difficulties in social-emotional well-being (SEW) in 7-year-old English children. We then investigated to what extent maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 score) explains the relationship between social disadvantage indicators and boys’ and girls’ SEW difficulties. Subjects consisted of 3661 child–mother dyads (1804 boys and 1857 girls). Results discerned gender differences in the effect social disadvantage indicators have on child SEW difficulties. Maternal education had a comparable effect on boys’ and girls’ SEW difficulties, but a steeper neighborhood deprivation gradient was evident for boys’ SEW difficulties compared to girls’ SEW difficulties. The effect of each social disadvantage indicator on boys’ and girls’ SEW difficulties was for most part direct and strong (p ≤ 0.001) rather than through maternal psychological distress, suggesting that the theoretical framework was incomplete. Here we demonstrate that where children are positioned on the social disadvantage gradient matters greatly to their SEW. Improving the living conditions and health of mothers with psychological distress may offer a pathway to improve child SEW. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elevated Levels of Serum IL-17A in Community-Dwelling Women with Higher Depressive Symptoms
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110102
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies indicate that patients with depression have increased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, studies of IL-17 and studies on community-dwellers are few. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum cytokine levels, especially IL-17A, among subjects with high and low
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Recent studies indicate that patients with depression have increased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, studies of IL-17 and studies on community-dwellers are few. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum cytokine levels, especially IL-17A, among subjects with high and low depressive symptoms of a general population. The participants comprised 20 female community-dwellers aged 40 years or older who contributed to a Shika study in Ishikawa, Japan. Ten participants who showed higher and ten who showed lower depressive symptoms among 208 females assessed by the Japanese version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were selected for this study. Serum samples were analyzed for TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17A using a multiplex Luminex analysis. For the comparison between the high and low depressive groups statistically, linear regression analyses were applied. The serum level of IL-17A was significantly higher among the high depressive participants (p < 0.05) even after controlling possible confounders, whereas there were no differences in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, or IL-12 between the high and low depressive groups. Our findings supported an association between serum IL-17A levels and depressive symptoms. Peripheral IL-17A immune response may be a preventive and treatment target for depression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sex Differences in Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentration Changes during Cooking in a Small Group
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110101
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide, has positive effects on social and emotional processes during group activities. Because cooking is an integrated process in the cognitive, physical, and socio-emotional areas, cooking in a group is reported to improve emotion and cognition. However, evidence for
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Background: Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide, has positive effects on social and emotional processes during group activities. Because cooking is an integrated process in the cognitive, physical, and socio-emotional areas, cooking in a group is reported to improve emotion and cognition. However, evidence for efficacy in group cooking has not been well established at the biological level. Methods: To address this shortcoming, we first measured salivary levels of OT and cortisol (CORT), a biomarker of psychological stress, before and after group cooking for approximately 1 h by people who know each other in healthy married or unmarried men and women. We then compared the initial OT and CORT concentrations with those during individual non-cooking activities in isolation. Results: Baseline OT concentrations before group and non-group sessions did not significantly differ and OT levels increased after both types of activity in men and women. In men, however, the percentage changes of OT levels in the first over the second saliva samples were significantly small during cooking compared with those in individual activities. In women, however, such a difference was not observed. In contrast, the mean salivary CORT concentrations after group cooking were significantly decreased from the baseline level in both sexes, though such decreases were not significant after individual activity sessions. The sex-specific differences were marital-status independent. Conclusion: These results indicate that OT and CORT concentrations after two activity sessions by a familiar group changed in opposite directions in a sex-specific manner. This suggests that, because cooking is experience-based, we need to consider the sex-specific features of group cooking if we apply it for intervention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Effect of Visual Exposure and Saliency of Museum Exhibits on Visitors’ Level of Contact and Engagement
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110100
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines visitors’ movement patterns at the Broad Museum designed by Zaha Hadid. Characterized with free, open, and generally unbound spaces, visitors explore a curated exhibition at their own pace, route, and agenda. Unlike most other public environments, a museum lends visitors
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This paper examines visitors’ movement patterns at the Broad Museum designed by Zaha Hadid. Characterized with free, open, and generally unbound spaces, visitors explore a curated exhibition at their own pace, route, and agenda. Unlike most other public environments, a museum lends visitors greater choice and control, and does not hold the social or spatial expectations of other facility types that might subject the visitor’s path of travel. In this study, 72 visitors were observed. A space syntax-based visibility graph analysis (VGA) was then performed to compute the visibility exposure and the spatial position of each exhibit within the museum. Negative binomial regression was used to look at the effects of spatial variables on visitors’ wayfinding, contact, and engagement with the pieces. Results showed that both the amount of visibility area around each exhibit, and its spatial position measured using space syntax techniques explained why visitors established a contact with the piece and their wayfinding behavior. Interestingly, however, the saliency of exhibits along with spatial variables were both strong predictors for why people arriving in groups split to engage with that particular exhibit. The simulation used in this study could be useful in curatorial decisions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health Behaviors of Student Community Research Partners When Designing and Implementing a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention on College Campuses
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110099
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Few studies work with college students as equal partners in all aspects of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) and even less evaluate behaviors of those college partners. The current study aimed to examine health behaviors of students by designing and implementing a peer-led, social
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Few studies work with college students as equal partners in all aspects of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) and even less evaluate behaviors of those college partners. The current study aimed to examine health behaviors of students by designing and implementing a peer-led, social marketing campaign (Get Fruved) to promote healthier lifestyles on their campuses. Enrolled students (n = 376) were trained to either design and implement a health promotion intervention (Social Marketing and Environmental Interventionists; SMEI, n = 78), be peer mentors (PM; n = 205), or serve as control participants (n = 93). Students’ behaviors (dietary, activity, and stress) and anthropometrics were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The population was predominately Caucasian, female, and between 19 and 20 years old. On average, fruit and vegetable consumption slightly decreased across all time points for each group with control at a larger decline. Students International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scores showed students met recommended amounts of activity throughout the intervention, with males reporting higher activity levels. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) analyses indicated 19 year olds had higher stress along with females had higher than males. Students involved in a CBPR approach to be trained, design, and implement a lifestyle intervention can achieve maintenance of health behaviors throughout a college year when compared to control students. Full article
Open AccessReview Factors Related to Physician Burnout and Its Consequences: A Review
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8110098
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Physician burnout is a universal dilemma that is seen in healthcare professionals, particularly physicians, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of low personal accomplishment. In this review, we discuss the contributing factors leading to physician burnout and its consequences
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Physician burnout is a universal dilemma that is seen in healthcare professionals, particularly physicians, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of low personal accomplishment. In this review, we discuss the contributing factors leading to physician burnout and its consequences for the physician’s health, patient outcomes, and the healthcare system. Physicians face daily challenges in providing care to their patients, and burnout may be from increased stress levels in overworked physicians. Additionally, the healthcare system mandates physicians to keep a meticulous record of their physician-patient encounters along with clerical responsibilities. Physicians are not well-trained in managing clerical duties, and this might shift their focus from solely caring for their patients. This can be addressed by the systematic application of evidence-based interventions, including but not limited to group interventions, mindfulness training, assertiveness training, facilitated discussion groups, and promoting a healthy work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physician Burnout in Hospitals)
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