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Med. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated intrauterine androgen levels increase the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessBrief Report
Dream Recall and Content versus the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Women
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070081
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between dream recall and content and the menstrual cycle among a large sample of young women. To this aim, 944 women were asked about [...] Read more.
The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between dream recall and content and the menstrual cycle among a large sample of young women. To this aim, 944 women were asked about their day of menstrual cycle, whether they remembered the previous night’s dreams and if they did so to describe the dream content as pleasant or unpleasant. A total of 378 women recalled the previous nights’ dreams, with 199 reporting pleasant dream affect/content and 179 reporting unpleasant dream content. In women who recalled their dreams, there was an association of pleasant dream content with the luteal phase (p = 0.038). In conclusion, in women, the hormonal milieu of the luteal phase may influence dream content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
LDLR Gene Polymorphisms (rs5925 and rs1529729) Are Associated with Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease in a South Indian Population
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070080
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in India and worldwide. Atherosclerosis is caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Hypercholesterolemia is an example of a classical risk factor for CVD. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is one of [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in India and worldwide. Atherosclerosis is caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Hypercholesterolemia is an example of a classical risk factor for CVD. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is one of the regulating mechanisms the liver uses for cholesterol homeostasis. Gene variations in the LDLR have been reported to cause hypercholesterolemia and consequently CVD. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the LDLR (rs5925 and rs1529729) with coronary artery disease (CAD) in 200 coronary artery disease patients and 200 matched healthy controls using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). The results indicated that the CT genotype of the rs1529729 polymorphism was associated a decreased susceptibility to CAD with an odds ratio (OR) = 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23–0.77), risk ratio (RR) = 0.59 (0.39–0.89), P = 0.0047. The TT genotype of the rs1529729 polymorphism was also associated with decreased susceptibility to CAD with an OR = 0.19 (95% CI, 0.076–0.47), RR = 0.57 (0.47–0.69), P = 0.0003. The GA genotype of the rs5925 polymorphism was associated with decreased susceptibility to CAD with an OR = 0.45 (95% CI, 0.27–0.75), RR = 0.65 (0.47–0.88), P = 0.002. We concluded that the CT and TT genotypes of the rs1529729 polymorphism and the GA genotype of the rs5925 polymorphism are probably associated with decreased susceptibility to CAD. The simplicity of AS-PCR makes it particularly suitable for the rapid, large-scale screening of gene variabilities in the LDLR. AS-PCR could provide significant benefits in clinical applications with its ability to amplify a lower quantity of samples in a cost-saving manner. Nevertheless, these findings need to be validated in well-designed studies with larger sample sizes and in different populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Developmental Programming of PCOS Traits: Insights from the Sheep
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070079
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder that results from a combination of multiple factors, including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that elevated intrauterine androgen levels increase the susceptibility of the female offspring to develop [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder that results from a combination of multiple factors, including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that elevated intrauterine androgen levels increase the susceptibility of the female offspring to develop the PCOS phenotype. Additionally, early postnatal endocrine and metabolic imbalances may act as a “second-hit”, which, through activational effects, might unmask or amplify the modifications programmed prenatally, thus culminating in the development of adult disease. Animal models provide unparalleled resources to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to androgen excess and to elucidate the etiology and progression of disease conditions associated with this occurrence, such as PCOS. In sheep, prenatal treatment with testosterone disrupts the developmental trajectory of the fetus, culminating in adult neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic perturbations that closely resemble those seen in women with PCOS. Our longitudinal studies clearly demonstrate that prenatal exposure to testosterone excess affects both the reproductive and the metabolic systems, leading to a self-perpetuating cycle with defects in one system having an impact on the other. These observations in the sheep suggest that intervention strategies targeting multiple organ systems may be required to prevent the progression of developmentally programmed disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview
Steroid Mass Spectrometry for the Diagnosis of PCOS
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070078
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
The most appropriate steroids to measure for the diagnosis of hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are still open to debate but should preferably be measured using a high-quality method such as liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Measurement of testosterone is recommended [...] Read more.
The most appropriate steroids to measure for the diagnosis of hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are still open to debate but should preferably be measured using a high-quality method such as liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Measurement of testosterone is recommended in all of the current clinical guidelines but other steroids, such as androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), have also been shown to be useful in diagnosing PCOS and may give additional information on metabolic risk. The 11-oxygenated steroids, and in particular 11KT derived mainly from the adrenal gland, are also increasing in prominence and have been shown to be the dominant androgens in this condition. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex syndrome and it is not surprising that each of the clinical phenotypes are associated with different patterns of steroid hormones; it is likely that steroid profiling with LC-MS/MS may be better at identifying hyperandrogensim in each of these phenotypes. Research into PCOS has been hampered by the small sample size of clinical studies previously undertaken and larger studies, preferably using LC-MS/MS profiling of steroids, are needed Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
Open AccessArticle
Correlation Between Red Cell Distribution Width and Peripheral Vascular Disease Severity and Complexity
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070077
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
A traditional hematological marker, red cell distribution width (RDW), is accepted as a novel marker of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Clinical importance of the RDW as a prognostic biomarker in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) has been reported in a few studies. Herein, we aimed [...] Read more.
A traditional hematological marker, red cell distribution width (RDW), is accepted as a novel marker of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Clinical importance of the RDW as a prognostic biomarker in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) has been reported in a few studies. Herein, we aimed to show the correlation between RDW and PVD severity and its complexity in terms of angiographic evaluation. A total of 118 patients who underwent peripheral lower extremity angiography were subsequently evaluated retrospectively. Upon admission, RDW level was measured with automated complete blood count. Severity and complexity of the PVD was evaluated according to Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC II) classification. A TASC II A-B lesion was defined as simple PVD, and a TASC II C-D lesion was defined as prevalent and complex PVD. Then, both groups were compared statistically according to clinical, laboratory, and demographic features, including RDW levels. In 49.6% of the patients, TASC II C-D lesions were observed. Advanced age, male gender, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with TASC II groups. Red cell distribution width levels were correlated with presence of PVD, as well as TASC II grades (p:0.02). The fourth quartile (75th percentile) of the RDW levels was 14.1, and patients with RDW levels ≥14.1 had a more significant correlation with the presence and severity of PVD (p:0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, elevated RDW was found to be an independent predictor of the presence of PVD and also TASC II C-D lesions (OR:2.26, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.051–0.774; p:0.02). Elevated RDW levels was associated with TASC II C-D lesions, which indicated more prevalent and complex PVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview
Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Lifestyle Management in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Narrative Review
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070076
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition that involves metabolic, psychological and reproductive complications. Insulin resistance underlies much of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of the condition and contributes to long term complications including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Women with PCOS are at [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition that involves metabolic, psychological and reproductive complications. Insulin resistance underlies much of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of the condition and contributes to long term complications including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity which further compounds metabolic, reproductive and psychological risks. Lifestyle interventions including diet, exercise and behavioural management have been shown to improve PCOS presentations across the reproductive, metabolic and psychological spectrum and are recommended as first line treatment for any presentation of PCOS in women with excess weight by the International Evidence-based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 2018. However, there is a paucity of research on the implementation lifestyle management in women with PCOS by healthcare providers. Limited existing evidence indicates lifestyle management is not consistently provided and not meeting the needs of the patients. In this review, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based lifestyle management in reference to PCOS are discussed in the context of a federally-funded health system. This review highlights the need for targeted research on the knowledge and practice of PCOS healthcare providers to best inform implementation strategies for the translation of the PCOS guidelines on lifestyle management in PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Second- and Third-line Infertility Treatments and Supporting Evidence in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(7), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7070075
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
In clomiphene-citrate-resistant anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and no other infertility factors, either metformin combined with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophins could be used as a second-line pharmacological therapy, although gonadotrophins are more effective. Gonadotrophins could also be used as a second-line [...] Read more.
In clomiphene-citrate-resistant anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and no other infertility factors, either metformin combined with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophins could be used as a second-line pharmacological therapy, although gonadotrophins are more effective. Gonadotrophins could also be used as a second-line pharmacological therapy in anovulatory women with PCOS and clomiphene-citrate-failure. Laparoscopic ovarian surgery can also be used as a second-line therapy for ovulation induction in anovulatory women with clomiphene-citrate-resistant PCOS and no other infertility factors. The usefulness of letrozole as a second-line pharmacological treatment for ovulation induction in clomiphene-citrate-resistant women with PCOS requires further research. In terms of improving fertility, both pharmacological anti-obesity agents and bariatric surgery should be considered an experimental therapy in anovulatory women with PCOS and no other infertility factors. Where first- or second-line ovulation induction therapies have failed, in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could be offered as a third-line therapy in women with PCOS in the absence of an absolute indication for IVF/ICSI. For women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol is preferred and an elective frozen embryo transfer strategy could be considered. In assisted conception units with sufficient expertise, in-vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes could be offered to women with PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
Med. Sci. EISSN 2076-3271 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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