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Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030075

Classification of Tidal Breathing Airflow Profiles Using Statistical Hierarchal Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

1
Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd CF37 1DL, UK
2
Department of Computer Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
3
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
4
Lung Function Laboratory, University Hospital Llandough, Llandough CF64 2XX, UK
5
Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Llandough, Llandough CF64 2XX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Pneumology and Respiratory Diseases)
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Abstract

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) breathing pattern changes with disease progress. This study aims to determine if unsupervised hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) can be used to define airflow profile differences in people with and without IPF. This was tested using 31 patients with IPF and 17 matched healthy controls, all of whom had their lung function assessed using spirometry and carbon monoxide CO transfer. A resting tidal breathing (RTB) trace of two minutes duration was collected at the same time. A Euclidian distance technique was used to perform HCA on the airflow data. Four distinct clusters were found, with the majority (18 of 21, 86%) of the severest IPF participants (Stage 2 and 3) being in two clusters. The participants in these clusters exhibited a distinct minute ventilation (p < 0.05), compared to the other two clusters. The respiratory drive was greatest in Cluster 1, which contained many of the IPF participants. Unstructured HCA was successful in recognising different airflow profiles, clustering according to differences in flow rather than time. HCA showed that there is an overlap in tidal airflow profiles between healthy RTB and those with IPF. The further application of HCA in recognising other respiratory disease is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: euclidian distance; minute ventilation; tidal volume; unstructured learning; lung function; inspiratory expiratory time euclidian distance; minute ventilation; tidal volume; unstructured learning; lung function; inspiratory expiratory time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Williams, E.M.; Colasanti, R.; Wolffs, K.; Thomas, P.; Hope-Gill, B. Classification of Tidal Breathing Airflow Profiles Using Statistical Hierarchal Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 75.

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