Next Article in Journal
Energy Reduction of a Tsunami Current through a Hybrid Defense System Comprising a Sea Embankment Followed by a Coastal Forest
Previous Article in Journal
High-Silica Lava Morphology at Ocean Spreading Ridges: Machine-Learning Seafloor Classification at Alarcon Rise
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Simple Effective Method for Three-Dimensional Modelling of Cementation, Fracturing and Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks: Illustrated through Oolitic Limestone

1
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
2
Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060246
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
  |  
PDF [4153 KB, uploaded 1 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Sandstones and many carbonates (e.g., oolitic limestone and other grainstones), comprise solid particulates (grains) and pores, which have a given pore network architecture relationship, and associated porosity—permeability values. Over time, through the process of diagenesis, the pore network architecture may be extensively altered. Changes can include compaction, particle deformation, cementation, dissolution and fracturing, with the pathway followed after deposition depending on factors such as the energy level, rate of burial, degree of biological activity, local heat flow, sediment composition, Eh, pH and the presence or absence of organic materials. Any method that provides a means of modelling changes is therefore highly desirable, in particular, allowing a prediction of changes in porosity and permeability with time. The current work illustrates a simple method that uses freely available open source image analysis software to model the development of cement phases within an oolitic limestone in three-dimensions. As well as cementation, it demonstrates the modelling of fracture development and dissolution processes, and records how porosity and permeability change during such processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional modelling; oolite; cementation; fracturing; dissolution; porosity; permeability three-dimensional modelling; oolite; cementation; fracturing; dissolution; porosity; permeability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Buckman, J.; Higgins, S. A Simple Effective Method for Three-Dimensional Modelling of Cementation, Fracturing and Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks: Illustrated through Oolitic Limestone. Geosciences 2019, 9, 246.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Geosciences EISSN 2076-3263 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top