Volcanic halogen emissions to the troposphere undergo a rapid plume chemistry that destroys ozone. Quantifying the impact of volcanic halogens on tropospheric ozone is challenging, only a few observations exist. This study presents measurements of ozone in volcanic plumes from Kīlauea (HI, USA), a low halogen emitter. The results are combined with published data from high halogen emitters (Mt Etna, Italy; Mt Redoubt, AK, USA) to identify controls on plume processes. Ozone was measured during periods of relatively sustained Kīlauea plume exposure, using an Aeroqual instrument deployed alongside Multi-Gas SO2
S sensors. Interferences were accounted for in data post-processing. The volcanic H2
molar ratio was quantified as 0.03. At Halema‘uma‘u crater-rim, ozone was close to ambient in the emission plume (at 10 ppmv SO2
). Measurements in grounding plume (at 5 ppmv SO2
) about 10 km downwind of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō showed just slight ozone depletion. These Kīlauea observations contrast with substantial ozone depletion reported at Mt Etna and Mt Redoubt. Analysis of the combined data from these three volcanoes identifies the emitted Br/S as a strong but non-linear control on the rate of ozone depletion. Model simulations of the volcanic plume chemistry highlight that the proportion of HBr converted into reactive bromine is a key control on the efficiency of ozone depletion. This underlines the importance of chemistry in the very near-source plume on the fate and atmospheric impacts of volcanic emissions to the troposphere.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited