Next Article in Journal
Expeller Barrel Dry Heat and Moist Heat Pressure Duration Induce Changes in Canola Meal Protein for Ruminant Utilisation
Next Article in Special Issue
Weak General but No Specific Habituation in Anticipating Stimuli of Presumed Negative and Positive Valence by Weaned Piglets
Previous Article in Journal
Copy Number Variations of KLF6 Modulate Gene Transcription and Growth Traits in Chinese Datong Yak (Bos Grunniens)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Affect-Driven Attention Biases as Animal Welfare Indicators: Review and Methods
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2018, 8(9), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8090146

Thermography as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress and Fear of Humans in Sheep

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
4
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise, Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italy
5
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Loc. Piano d’Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Emotion)
Full-Text   |   PDF [797 KB, uploaded 21 August 2018]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Simple Summary

The ability to non-invasively measure fear is an essential component of animal welfare assessment. Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to obtain images from five Sarda breed ewes during restraint and immediately after two voluntary animal approach (VAA) tests. Our preliminary results suggest that IRT, combined with behavioral data, is a non-invasive technique that can be useful to assess stress and infer about negative emotions in sheep.

Abstract

No data have been published on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate sheep emotions. We assessed whether this technique can be used as a non-invasive measure of negative emotions. Two voluntary animal approach (VAA) tests were conducted (and filmed) on five ewes before and after being restrained. The restraining process was performed by a handler for five minutes. IRT was used during restraint and the VAA tests. The lacrimal caruncle temperature was significantly higher during restraint and in the VAA test after the restraint compared with the VAA test before the restraint (Wilcoxon’s test; p = 0.04). The latency period until first contact was longer in the second VAA test (132 s) than in the first one (60 s). Our preliminary results suggest that IRT, combined with behavioral data, is a non-invasive technique that can be useful to assess stress and infer about negative emotions in sheep. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermography; sheep; fear; stress; handling thermography; sheep; fear; stress; handling
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cannas, S.; Palestrini, C.; Canali, E.; Cozzi, B.; Ferri, N.; Heinzl, E.; Minero, M.; Chincarini, M.; Vignola, G.; Dalla Costa, E. Thermography as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress and Fear of Humans in Sheep. Animals 2018, 8, 146.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top