Next Article in Journal
Objecthood, Agency and Mutualism in Valenced Farm Animal Environments
Next Article in Special Issue
A Two-Step Process of Nitrous Oxide before Carbon Dioxide for Humanely Euthanizing Piglets: On-Farm Trials
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for the Euthanasia of Neonate Piglets
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Animals 2018, 8(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8040049

The Use of a Mechanical Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Device for the Euthanasia of Neonate Lambs

1
School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
2
Silsoe Livestock Systems, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HR, UK
3
Humane Slaughter Association, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humane Killing and Euthanasia of Animals on Farms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [84588 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

A non-penetrating captive bolt device, powered by a 1-grain 0.22″ cartridge delivering a calculated kinetic energy of 47 Joules was tested as a euthanasia method on 200 neonate lambs (Ovis aries) of 4.464 kg (SD (Standard deviation) ± 1.056) mean dead weight, to assess effectiveness and shot position. Every lamb (n = 200) was effectively stunned when the weapon was applied powered by a brown, 1-grain cartridge but 10/200 (5%) of the lambs displayed rhythmic or agonal breathing and were subsequently euthanased using euthatal (Merial, UK, GTIN: 03661103015550). Evaluation of the method was conducted using behavioural indicators of brain dysfunction followed by post-mortem examination of the heads. A second trial was conducted using a higher velocity 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shot position on 48 lambs (mean dead weight = 6.21 kg, SD ± 1.24) averaging 5 days old. One hundred percent of the lambs in the second trial were immediately stun-killed. Given this complete kill rate and the sample size of the study, the study provides a statistical 95% confidence interval of 92.6% to 100%. The use of the Accles & Shelvoke “CASH” Small Animal Tool (Birmingham, UK) can therefore be recommended for the euthanasia of neonate lambs with a 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shooting position. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal welfare; euthanasia; livestock; mechanical killing; on-farm killing; neonate lamb animal welfare; euthanasia; livestock; mechanical killing; on-farm killing; neonate lamb
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grist, A.; Lines, J.A.; Knowles, T.G.; Mason, C.W.; Wotton, S.B. The Use of a Mechanical Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Device for the Euthanasia of Neonate Lambs. Animals 2018, 8, 49.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top