The Modulation of Functional Status of Bovine Spermatozoa by Progesterone
Branch of Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry Named after Academy Member L.K. Ernst, Russian Research Institute of Genetic and Breeding Farm Animals, 196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry Named after Academy Member L.K. Ernst, 142132 Moscow, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Santillo and Maria Maddalena Di Fiore
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
Progesterone is an endogenous steroid hormone, which can induce capacitation and/or acrosome reactions in semen of certain mammalian species. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of progesterone on the functional status of fresh bovine spermatozoa using a chlortetracycline fluorescent probe. Results showed that heparin induced capacitation in spermatozoa incubated with or without progesterone. The destruction of microfilaments by an inhibitor of cytochalasin D blocked the stimulating effect of heparin. Steroid hormone in mixture with prolactin stimulated the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, which was blocked by an inhibitor of microtubule polymerization (nocodazole). At the acrosome stage, prolactin provided the undergoing of acrosome reaction in male gametes. This effect was noted both in the presence and absence of progesterone and inhibited by nocodazole. The supplementation of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate during the acrosome reaction to progesterone-untreated spermatozoa did not cause changes in proportion of acrosome-reacted cells. However, when progesterone was added during capacitation, a significant increase in the proportion of capacitated cells was noted, which was inhibited by nocodazole. Thus, progesterone under the action of prolactin and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate determines the functional status of fresh spermatozoa, which indicates progesterone-modulating effect on the indicators of post-ejaculatory maturation of male gametes.