Next Article in Journal
Systematic Review: Comparison of the Main Variables of Interest in Publications of Canine Bite Accidents in the Written Press, Gray and Scientific Literature in Chile and Spain, between the Years 2013 and 2017
Previous Article in Journal
Changes Associated with the Peri-Ovulatory Period, Age and Pregnancy in ACTH, Cortisol, Glucose and Insulin Concentrations in Mares
Review

Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need to Know?

1
Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), 1040 Brussels, Belgium
2
Holmes St Anthony’s Veterinary Hospital, St Anthonys, Caherslee, V92 V6YK Tralee, Ireland
3
Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA), Ottawa, ON K1R 7K1, Canada
4
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), Schaumburg, IL 60173, USA
5
Companion Animal Clinic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, University of Goettingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
6
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Antunes
Animals 2021, 11(3), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030892
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 20 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
As cannabis-derived products have become more available for human medical and recreational use, veterinarians are seeing more cases of cannabis toxicosis in pets. In addition, animal owners have increasing interest in giving these products to their pets. These clients understandably are asking, “Are these products legal, safe, and effective for treating medical conditions in animals?”. This review considers the different types of cannabis and cannabis-derived products, historical examples of use in animals, the industry, the existing framework of legislation and regulations for use in humans and animals as medicines and/or supplements, veterinary clinical use of these products, toxicosis, and recommendations and warnings around their veterinary use.
As cannabis-derived products have become more available, veterinarians are seeing more cases of toxicosis. In addition, animal owners are having an increasing interest in using these products for their pets. This review looks at the situation in Europe and North America, the different types of cannabis and cannabis-derived products with historical examples of use in animals, and the cannabis industry. The existing regulatory framework for use in humans and animals as medicines and/or supplements was examined. Finally, a review of the clinical indications for which medicinal cannabis is authorised, a discussion of toxicosis, and recommendations and warnings around medical cannabis use are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoids; cannabidiol (CBD); CBD oils; Marinol; THC (Delta-9-trans tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol); veterinary use; veterinary medicine; companion animals; toxicity; dog; cat; horse cannabis; cannabinoids; cannabidiol (CBD); CBD oils; Marinol; THC (Delta-9-trans tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol); veterinary use; veterinary medicine; companion animals; toxicity; dog; cat; horse
MDPI and ACS Style

De Briyne, N.; Holmes, D.; Sandler, I.; Stiles, E.; Szymanski, D.; Moody, S.; Neumann, S.; Anadón, A. Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need to Know? Animals 2021, 11, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030892

AMA Style

De Briyne N, Holmes D, Sandler I, Stiles E, Szymanski D, Moody S, Neumann S, Anadón A. Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need to Know? Animals. 2021; 11(3):892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030892

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Briyne, Nancy, Danny Holmes, Ian Sandler, Enid Stiles, Dharati Szymanski, Sarah Moody, Stephan Neumann, and Arturo Anadón. 2021. "Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need to Know?" Animals 11, no. 3: 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030892

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop