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Article

Immunohistochemical Assessment of Immune Response in the Dermis of Sarcoptes scabiei—Infested Wild Carnivores (Wolf and Fox) and Ruminants (Chamois and Red Deer)

1
Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24006 León, Spain
2
Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, UPAEP Universidad, 72410 Puebla, Mexico
3
SERPA, Sociedad de Servicios del Principado de Asturias S.A., 33202 Gijón, Spain
4
Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña, CSIC-Universidad de León, Finca Marzanas, Grulleros, 24346 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071146
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Pathology and Immunohistochemistry of Veterinary Species)
This article studies the local immune processes in dermis underlying the macroscopical differences (hyperkeratotic or alopecic) in mangy lesions from wolves (Canis lupus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Skin sections were immuno-stained to detect macrophages, plasma cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Skin lesions contained significantly more inflammatory cells in fox than in wolf and chamois. Macrophages were the most abundant inflammatory cells in the lesions of all the species studied, suggesting a predominantly innate, non-specific immune response. Lesions from wolf contained higher proportions of macrophages than the other species, which may reflect a more effective response, leading to alopecic lesions. Fox and chamois may also mount substantial humoral and cellular immune responses with apparently scarce effectiveness that lead to hyperkeratotic lesions.
Sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been described in several species of domestic and wild mammals. Macroscopic lesions are predominantly hyperkeratotic (type I hypersensitivity) in fox, chamois and deer, but alopecic (type IV hypersensitivity) in wolf and some fox populations. To begin to understand the immune processes underlying these species differences in lesions, we examined skin biopsies from wolves (Canis lupus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infested with S. scabiei. Twenty skin samples from five animals per species were used. Sections were immuno-stained with primary antibodies against Iba1 to detect macrophages, lambda chain to detect plasma cells, CD3 to detect T lymphocytes and CD20 to detect B lymphocytes. Skin lesions contained significantly more inflammatory cells in the fox than in the wolf and chamois. Macrophages were the most abundant inflammatory cells in the lesions of all the species studied, suggesting a predominantly innate, non-specific immune response. Lesions from the wolf contained higher proportions of macrophages than the other species, which may reflect a more effective response, leading to alopecic lesions. In red deer, macrophages were significantly more abundant than plasma cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, which were similarly abundant. The fox proportion of plasma cells was significantly higher than those of T and B lymphocytes. In chamois, T lymphocytes were more abundant than B lymphocytes and plasma cells, although the differences were significant only in the case of macrophages. These results suggest that all the species examined mount a predominantly innate immune response against S. scabiei infestation, while fox and chamois may also mount substantial humoral and cellular immune responses, respectively, with apparently scarce effectiveness that lead to hyperkeratotic lesions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sarcoptes scabiei; dermis cellular response; wolf; red fox; chamois; red deer; immunohistochemistry Sarcoptes scabiei; dermis cellular response; wolf; red fox; chamois; red deer; immunohistochemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, I.Z.; Oleaga, Á.; Sojo, I.; García-Iglesias, M.J.; Pérez-Martínez, C.; García Marín, J.F.; Balseiro, A. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Immune Response in the Dermis of Sarcoptes scabiei—Infested Wild Carnivores (Wolf and Fox) and Ruminants (Chamois and Red Deer). Animals 2020, 10, 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071146

AMA Style

Martínez IZ, Oleaga Á, Sojo I, García-Iglesias MJ, Pérez-Martínez C, García Marín JF, Balseiro A. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Immune Response in the Dermis of Sarcoptes scabiei—Infested Wild Carnivores (Wolf and Fox) and Ruminants (Chamois and Red Deer). Animals. 2020; 10(7):1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez, Ileana Z.; Oleaga, Álvaro; Sojo, Irene; García-Iglesias, María J.; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; García Marín, Juan F.; Balseiro, Ana. 2020. "Immunohistochemical Assessment of Immune Response in the Dermis of Sarcoptes scabiei—Infested Wild Carnivores (Wolf and Fox) and Ruminants (Chamois and Red Deer)" Animals 10, no. 7: 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071146

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