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Open AccessArticle

Early Parenteral Administration of Ceftiofur has Gender-Specific Short- and Long-Term Effects on the Fecal Microbiota and Growth in Pigs from the Suckling to Growing Phase

1
University Clinic for Swine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Unit of Nutritional Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
3
Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, Unit of Food Microbiology, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 11210 Vienna, Austria
4
Field Station for Epidemiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 49456 Bakum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010017
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Gut Microbiota and Growth and Health of Monogastric Farm Animals)
Antibiotics are commonly used in prevention and therapy of bacterial diseases in pig production. Although the main target of antibiotics are the pathogenic bacteria, they often disrupt the commensal gut microbiota as a whole, leading to intestinal disturbances. These detrimental effects have been well established for oral administration of antibiotics, whereas knowledge about potential disturbing effects of single parenteral antibiotic treatments on the gut microbiota development is limited. In this research, the impact of a single antibiotic injection on the first day of life on the maturation of the fecal microbiome and host growth performance was evaluated from the suckling to the growing phase. Results showed that a single antibiotic injection early in life influenced the bacterial community development in the short- and long-term and that this disturbance in the bacterial community was sex-specific. Present results further demonstrated that changes in the bacterial ecosystem of the gut may impair the growth performance of the growing pig. Thus, the results of the present study emphasize the importance of a proper and strict use of antibiotics in swine herds.
Using ceftiofur during the first days of life is a common preventative strategy against several bacterial diseases in pig production. This study aimed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of early use of ceftiofur on the fecal microbiota development in suckling and growing pigs. Sixty-four piglets from eight litters were assigned to the antibiotic (AB; n = 32) or control group (control; n = 32). Twelve hours postpartum (day 0) AB piglets received an intramuscular injection of ceftiofur (5.0 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected on days 0, 12, 28, and 97 for deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The AB administration disturbed the maturational changes in the fecal microbiome, whereby effects were sex-specific. Sex-related differences in AB metabolism in females and males may have caused these diverging AB-effects on the fecal microbiota. Especially the loss of bacterial diversity and of certain taxa in female AB pigs may have contributed to the decreased body weight of these females on day 97 of life. Taken together, this study showed that an AB injection with ceftiofur 12 h postpartum markedly affected the successional changes in the fecal microbiota composition in male and female pigs, with long-term consequences for host performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceftiofur; antimicrobial; microbiota composition; fecal microbiome; growth performance; pig ceftiofur; antimicrobial; microbiota composition; fecal microbiome; growth performance; pig
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Ruczizka, U.; Metzler-Zebeli, B.; Unterweger, C.; Mann, E.; Schwarz, L.; Knecht, C.; Hennig-Pauka, I. Early Parenteral Administration of Ceftiofur has Gender-Specific Short- and Long-Term Effects on the Fecal Microbiota and Growth in Pigs from the Suckling to Growing Phase. Animals 2020, 10, 17.

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