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Article

Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Transmission by Kiwifruit Pollen

1
CESAM, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
APK-Associação Portuguesa de Kiwicultores, 4520-249 Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal
3
PhageLab-Laboratory of Biofilms and Bacteriophages, University of Sorocaba, 18023-000 Sorocaba/SP, Brazil
4
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071022
Received: 16 June 2020 / Revised: 4 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a phytopathogen responsible for bacterial canker in kiwifruit plants and can be disseminated through pollen. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the inactivation of Psa on kiwifruit pollen using New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Methylene Blue (MB) in the presence/absence of potassium iodide (KI). Pollen germination assays were also performed to evaluate if it was affected by aPDT. Higher reduction of Psa was achieved using NMB (5.0 μM) combined with KI (100 mM) in vitro (ca. 8 log CFU mL−1 after 90 min of irradiation), while NMB alone promoted a lower reduction (3.7 log CFU mL−1). The most efficient NMB concentration with KI was used to study the photodynamic efficiency of MB (5.0 μM). MB with KI photo-inactivated Psa more efficiently than NMB, causing the same bacterial reduction (ca. 8 log CFU mL−1) in half the irradiation time (45 min). Therefore, MB was selected for the subsequent ex vivo aPDT assays in pollen. Almost all the Psa cells added artificially to the pollen (3.2 log CFU mL−1) were photo-inactivated (3.1 log CFU mL−1), whereas aPDT had a low effect on pollen natural microorganisms. When KI was added, a significant increase in aPDT effectiveness was observed (4.5 log CFU mL−1). No negative effects were observed in the pollen germination after aPDT. The results show aPDT is an effective and safe method to Psa inactivation on kiwifruit pollen, and MB use is a promising alternative in the control of Psa transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; photosensitizers; bacterial infection; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae; kiwifruit pollen Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; photosensitizers; bacterial infection; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae; kiwifruit pollen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopes, M.M.; Bartolomeu, M.; Gomes, A.T.P.C.; Figueira, E.; Pinto, R.; Reis, L.; Balcão, V.M.; Faustino, M.A.F.; Neves, M.G.P.M.S.; Almeida, A. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Transmission by Kiwifruit Pollen. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071022

AMA Style

Lopes MM, Bartolomeu M, Gomes ATPC, Figueira E, Pinto R, Reis L, Balcão VM, Faustino MAF, Neves MGPMS, Almeida A. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Transmission by Kiwifruit Pollen. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(7):1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopes, Margarida M., Maria Bartolomeu, Ana T.P.C. Gomes, Etelvina Figueira, Ricardo Pinto, Luís Reis, Victor M. Balcão, M. A.F. Faustino, M. G.P.M.S. Neves, and Adelaide Almeida. 2020. "Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Transmission by Kiwifruit Pollen" Microorganisms 8, no. 7: 1022. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071022

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