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Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) for the First Time in Layer Farms in Bangladesh and Their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071021
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes significant economic losses in poultry industries. Here, we determined for the first time in Bangladesh, the prevalence of APEC-associated virulence genes in E. coli isolated from layer farms and their antibiotic resistance patterns. A total of 99 samples comprising internal organs, feces, and air were collected from 32 layer farms. Isolation was performed by culturing samples on eosin–methylene blue agar plates, while the molecular detection of APEC was performed by PCR, and antibiograms were performed by disk diffusion. Among the samples, 36 were positive for the APEC-associated virulence genes fimC, iucD, and papC. Out of 36 isolates, 7, 18, and 11 were positive, respectively, for three virulence genes (papC, fimC, and iucD), two virulence genes, and a single virulence gene. Although the detection of virulence genes was significantly higher in the internal organs, the air and feces were also positive. The antibiograms revealed that all the isolates (100%) were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline; 97.2%, to chloramphenicol and erythromycin; 55.5%, to enrofloxacin; 50.0%, to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin; 19.4%, to streptomycin; 11.1%, to colistin; and 8.33%, to gentamicin. Interestingly, all the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis revealed the strongest significant correlation between norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance. This is the first study in Bangladesh describing the molecular detection of APEC in layer farms. Isolated APEC can now be used for detailed genetic characterization and assessing the impact on public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian pathogenic E. coli; virulence genes; multidrug-resistant; layer farm; air; public health avian pathogenic E. coli; virulence genes; multidrug-resistant; layer farm; air; public health
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Ievy, S.; Islam, M.S.; Sobur, M.A.; Talukder, M.; Rahman, M.B.; Khan, M.F.R.; Rahman, M.T. Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) for the First Time in Layer Farms in Bangladesh and Their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1021.

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