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Occurrence and Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereal-Based Feed and Food
Article

A Comprehensive Study on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Producing Fungi during the Maize Production Cycle in Spain

1
Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University Complutense of Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais 12, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Laboratorio Arbitral Agroalimentario, Aguaron 13, 28023 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010141
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 18 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Route of Mycotoxins from Farm to Fork)
Mycotoxin contamination is one of the main problems affecting corn production, due to its significant risk to human and animal health. The Fusarium and Aspergillus species are the main producers of mycotoxins in maize, infecting both pre-harvest and during storage. In this work, we evaluated the presence of mycotoxins and their producing species along maize production cycles in three different stages (anthesis, harvest, and storage) during three consecutive seasons (2016–2018). Fungal occurrences were studied using species-specific PCR protocols, whereas mycotoxin levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum), as well as the aflatoxin producer Aspergillus flavus, were the most predominant species at all stages; although, during some seasons, the presence of F. graminearum and A. niger aggregate species were also identified. Contrastingly, fumonisins were the only mycotoxins detected and levels were always under legal regulations. The results presented here demonstrate that even when fungal contamination occurs at the early stages of the maize production cycle, the application of good agricultural and storage practices might be crucial to ensure mycotoxin-free grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; fumonisins; good agricultural practices; corn; PCR-detection; Aspergillus; Fusarium aflatoxins; fumonisins; good agricultural practices; corn; PCR-detection; Aspergillus; Fusarium
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Díaz, M.; Gil-Serna, J.; Vázquez, C.; Botia, M.N.; Patiño, B. A Comprehensive Study on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Producing Fungi during the Maize Production Cycle in Spain. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010141

AMA Style

García-Díaz M, Gil-Serna J, Vázquez C, Botia MN, Patiño B. A Comprehensive Study on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Producing Fungi during the Maize Production Cycle in Spain. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(1):141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010141

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Díaz, Marta, Jéssica Gil-Serna, Covadonga Vázquez, María N. Botia, and Belén Patiño. 2020. "A Comprehensive Study on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Producing Fungi during the Maize Production Cycle in Spain" Microorganisms 8, no. 1: 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010141

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