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Open AccessReview

Urobiome: In Sickness and in Health

1
Department of Immunological Diagnostics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-123 Szczecin, Poland
2
Clinic of Nephrology, Internal Medicine and Transplantation, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-123 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-123 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110548
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 10 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
The human microbiome has been proven to contribute to the human condition, both in health and in disease. The metagenomic approach based on next-generation sequencing has challenged the dogma of urine sterility. The human urobiome consists of bacteria and eukaryotic viruses as well as bacteriophages, which potentially represent the key factor. There have been several significant findings with respect to the urobiome in the context of urological disorders. Still, the research on the urobiome in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation remains underrepresented, as does research on the role of the virome in the urinary microbiota. In this review, we present recent findings on the urobiome with a particular emphasis on chronic kidney disease and post-kidney transplantation status. Challenges and opportunities arising from the research on the human urobiome will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: urobiome; virome; chronic kidney disease urobiome; virome; chronic kidney disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Wojciuk, B.; Salabura, A.; Grygorcewicz, B.; Kędzierska, K.; Ciechanowski, K.; Dołęgowska, B. Urobiome: In Sickness and in Health. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 548.

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