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Patterns of Ecological Adaptation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Stegomyia Indices Highlight the Potential Risk of Arbovirus Transmission in Yaoundé, the Capital City of Cameroon

1
Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, 15391 Yaoundé, Cameroon
2
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
3
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Congo
4
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060491
Received: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 20 June 2020
The dynamic of arbovirus vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus remains poorly understood in large cities in central Africa. Here, we compared the larval ecology, geographical distribution and degree of infestation of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, and estimated their Stegomyia indices revealing a significant potential risk of arbovirus transmission. An entomological survey was conducted in April–May 2018 in a cluster of houses randomly selected. Each selected house was inspected, the number of inhabitants was recorded, and potential and positive containers for Aedes were characterized. Stegomyia and pupae-based indices were estimated. Overall, 447 houses and 954 containers were inspected comprising 10,801 immature stages of Aedes with 84.95% of Ae. albopictus and 15.05% of Ae. aegypti. Both species bred mainly in discarded tanks and used tyres, associated with turbid water and the presence of plant debris inside containers. Aedes albopictus was the most prevalent species in almost all neighbourhoods. The house index, Breteau index, and container index were higher for Ae. albopictus (38.26%, 71.81%, and 29.61%) compared to those of Ae. aegypti (25.73%, 40.93%, and 16.88%). These indices are high compared to the thresholds established by Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization, which suggests a high potential risk of arbovirus transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Stegomyia indices; arbovirus; Cameroon Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Stegomyia indices; arbovirus; Cameroon
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Tedjou, A.N.; Kamgang, B.; Yougang, A.P.; Wilson-Bahun, T.A.; Njiokou, F.; Wondji, C.S. Patterns of Ecological Adaptation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Stegomyia Indices Highlight the Potential Risk of Arbovirus Transmission in Yaoundé, the Capital City of Cameroon. Pathogens 2020, 9, 491.

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