Emerging and re-emerging viral diseases are of great public health concern. The recent emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 in China, which causes COVID-19 disease in humans, and its current spread to several countries, leading to the first pandemic in history to be caused by a coronavirus, highlights the significance of zoonotic viral diseases. Rift Valley fever, rabies, West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Ebola, and influenza viruses among many other viruses have been reported from different African countries. The paucity of information, lack of knowledge, limited resources, and climate change, coupled with cultural traditions make the African continent a hotspot for vector-borne and zoonotic viral diseases, which may spread globally. Currently, there is no information available on the status of virus diseases in Africa. This systematic review highlights the available information about viral diseases, including zoonotic and vector-borne diseases, reported in Africa. The findings will help us understand the trend of emerging and re-emerging virus diseases within the African continent. The findings recommend active surveillance of viral diseases and strict implementation of One Health measures in Africa to improve human public health and reduce the possibility of potential pandemics due to zoonotic viruses.
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