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Open AccessArticle

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Random Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Comparisons of Geographic Isolates of Neoparamoeba perurans, the Causative Agent of Amoebic Gill Disease

1
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1370 Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
2
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, N5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Vet-Aqua International, Unit 7B, Oranmore Business Park, H91 XP3F Galway, Ireland
4
Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Weymouth laboratories, The Nothe Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040244
Received: 1 September 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Infectious Diseases in Aquaculture)
Neoparamoba perurans, is the aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), a disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon worldwide. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) are PCR-based typing methods that allow for the highly reproducible genetic analysis of population structure within microbial species. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first use of these typing methods applied to N. perurans with the objective of distinguishing geographical isolates. These analyses were applied to a total of 16 isolates from Australia, Canada, Ireland, Scotland, Norway, and the USA. All the samples from Australia came from farm sites on the island state of Tasmania. Genetic polymorphism among isolates was more evident from the RAPD analysis compared to the MLST that used conserved housekeeping genes. Both techniques consistently identified that isolates of N. perurans from Tasmania, Australia were more similar to each other than to the isolates from other countries. While genetic differences were identified between geographical isolates, a BURST analysis provided no evidence of a founder genotype. This suggests that emerging outbreaks of AGD are not due to rapid translocation of this important salmonid pathogen from the same area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paramoeba perurans; Amoebic Gill Disease; epidemiology; pathogen genetics Paramoeba perurans; Amoebic Gill Disease; epidemiology; pathogen genetics
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Johnson-Mackinnon, J.C.; Crosbie, P.B.B.; Karlsbakk, E.; Marcos-Lopez, M.; Paley, R.; Nowak, B.F.; Bridle, A.R. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Random Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Comparisons of Geographic Isolates of Neoparamoeba perurans, the Causative Agent of Amoebic Gill Disease. Pathogens 2019, 8, 244.

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