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Antigenic Site Variation in the Hemagglutinin of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2009–2017 in Ukraine

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Educational Scientific Centre “Institute of Biology and Medicine”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
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“Gromashevsky L.V. Institute of epidemiology and infectious diseases, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine” 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040194
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
The hemagglutinin (HA) is a major influenza virus antigen, which, once recognized by antibodies and substitutions in HA genes, helps virus in escaping the human immune response. It is therefore critical to perform genetic and phylogenetic analysis of HA in circulating influenza viruses. We performed phylogenetic and genetic analysis of isolates from Ukraine, the vaccine strain and reference strains were used to phylogenetically identify trends in mutation locations and substitutions. Ukrainian isolates were collected between 2009–2017 and clustered in the influenza genetic groups 2, 6, 7, and 8. Genetic changes were observed in each of the antigenic sites: Sa – S162T, K163Q, K163I; Sb – S185T, A186T, S190G, S190R; Ca1 – S203T, R205K, E235V, E235D, S236P; Ca2 – P137H, H138R, A141T, D222G, D222N; Cb – A73S, S74R, S74N. In spite of detected mutations in antigenic sites, Ukrainian isolates retained similarity to the vaccine strain A/California/07/09 circulated during 2009–2017. However, WHO recommended a new vaccine strain A/Michigan/45/2015 for the Southern Hemisphere after the emergence of the new genetic groups 6B.1 and 6B.2. Our study demonstrated genetic variability of HA protein of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in 2009–2017 in Ukraine. Influenza surveillance is very important for understanding epidemiological situations. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic analysis; influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus; antigenic site; mutation genetic analysis; influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus; antigenic site; mutation
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Zolotarova, O.; Budzanivska, I.; Leibenko, L.; Radchenko, L.; Mironenko, A. Antigenic Site Variation in the Hemagglutinin of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2009–2017 in Ukraine. Pathogens 2019, 8, 194.

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