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Open AccessReview

Current Understanding of West Nile Virus Clinical Manifestations, Immune Responses, Neuroinvasion, and Immunotherapeutic Implications

1
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA
2
Departments of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
3
Methodist Rehabilitation Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040193
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 13 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus)
West Nile virus (WNV) is the most common mosquito-borne virus in North America. WNV-associated neuroinvasive disease affects all ages, although elderly and immunocompromised individuals are particularly at risk. WNV neuroinvasive disease has killed over 2300 Americans since WNV entered into the United States in the New York City outbreak of 1999. Despite 20 years of intensive laboratory and clinical research, there are still no approved vaccines or antivirals available for human use. However, rapid progress has been made in both understanding the pathogenesis of WNV and treatment in clinical practices. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNV infection in terms of human clinical manifestations, host immune responses, neuroinvasion, and therapeutic interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; immune response; neuroinvasion; clinical manifestation; therapeutic implication West Nile virus; immune response; neuroinvasion; clinical manifestation; therapeutic implication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bai, F.; Thompson, E.A.; Vig, P.J.S.; Leis, A.A. Current Understanding of West Nile Virus Clinical Manifestations, Immune Responses, Neuroinvasion, and Immunotherapeutic Implications. Pathogens 2019, 8, 193.

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