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Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Quality Genetics Sweden HB, SE-24292 Hörby, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2014, 3(4), 934-946;
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alternatives to antibiotics are discussed, including physical removal of the bacteria during semen processing, as well as the development of novel antimicrobials. Colloid centrifugation, particularly Single Layer Centrifugation, when carried out with a strict aseptic technique, offers a feasible method for reducing bacterial contamination in semen and is a practical method for semen processing laboratories to adopt. However, none of these alternatives to antibiotics should replace strict attention to hygiene during semen collection and handling. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; semen extenders; resistance; alternatives antibiotics; semen extenders; resistance; alternatives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morrell, J.M.; Wallgren, M. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review. Pathogens 2014, 3, 934-946.

AMA Style

Morrell JM, Wallgren M. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review. Pathogens. 2014; 3(4):934-946.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morrell, Jane M., and Margareta Wallgren. 2014. "Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review" Pathogens 3, no. 4: 934-946.

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