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Review

Revisiting the Vital Drivers and Mechanisms of β-Glucan Masking in Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

1
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram 122413, India
2
Centre for Drug Design Discovery and Development (C4D), SRM University, Sonepat 131029, India
3
Department of Pathology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, 19555 N. 59th Ave., Glendale, AZ 85308, USA
4
Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080942
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
Among the several human fungal pathogens, Candida genus represents one of the most implicated in the clinical scenario. There exist several distinctive features that govern the establishment of Candida infections in addition to their capacity to adapt to multiple stress conditions inside humans which also include evasion of host immune responses. The complex fungal cell wall of the prevalent pathogen, Candida albicans, is one of the main targets of antifungal drugs and recognized by host immune cells. The wall consists of tiered arrangement of an outer thin but dense covering of mannan and inner buried layers of β-glucan and chitin. However, the pathogenic fungi adopt strategies to evade immune recognition by masking these molecules. This capacity to camouflage the immunogenic polysaccharide β-glucan from the host is a key virulence factor of C. albicans. The present review is an attempt to collate various underlying factors and mechanisms involved in Candida β-glucan masking from the available pool of knowledge and provide a comprehensive understanding. This will further improve therapeutic approaches to candidiasis by identifying new antifungal targets that blocks fungal immune evasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida; MDR; cell wall; β-glucan; chitin; mannan; PAMP; PRR Candida; MDR; cell wall; β-glucan; chitin; mannan; PAMP; PRR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hameed, S.; Hans, S.; Singh, S.; Dhiman, R.; Monasky, R.; Pandey, R.P.; Thangamani, S.; Fatima, Z. Revisiting the Vital Drivers and Mechanisms of β-Glucan Masking in Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans. Pathogens 2021, 10, 942. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080942

AMA Style

Hameed S, Hans S, Singh S, Dhiman R, Monasky R, Pandey RP, Thangamani S, Fatima Z. Revisiting the Vital Drivers and Mechanisms of β-Glucan Masking in Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans. Pathogens. 2021; 10(8):942. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080942

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hameed, Saif, Sandeep Hans, Shweta Singh, Ruby Dhiman, Ross Monasky, Ramendra Pati Pandey, Shankar Thangamani, and Zeeshan Fatima. 2021. "Revisiting the Vital Drivers and Mechanisms of β-Glucan Masking in Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans" Pathogens 10, no. 8: 942. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080942

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