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Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): By choosing their intimate partners, South Asian women departed from social norms of arranged marriage. Their decision to leave or remain if the relationship became abusive and violent was mediated by their own socialisation of arranged marriage. A qualitative research approach using Black Feminist Standpoint Epistemology gives voice to South Asian women’s experiences of, and responses to, intimate partner violence. The analysis shows that women’s agentic act of choosing a partner became the very barrier to leaving the relationship if it turned violent and abusive. The article “’Should I stay, or should I go?’: The experiences of, and choices available to women of South Asian heritage living in the UK when leaving a relationship of choice following Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)” widens our understanding and knowledge, providing further insight into the topic of Intimate Partner [...] Read more.
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Article
Democracy, Biodiversity and More than Human Justice Imperatives: Institutional Responses to Crisis
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090166 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1563
Abstract
In terms of a human responsibility for the wrongful expulsion of non-human nature from natural habitats through wildfires, global warming, the over-exploitation of lands, seas and biological life, humanity is forced to revisit some fundamental issues of late with regard to the ongoing [...] Read more.
In terms of a human responsibility for the wrongful expulsion of non-human nature from natural habitats through wildfires, global warming, the over-exploitation of lands, seas and biological life, humanity is forced to revisit some fundamental issues of late with regard to the ongoing legitimacy of its claims to the Earth’s resources. Can human communities continue to lay claim to remaining essential reserves with little regard for the life situation of non-human others? Should certain principles of distributive and territorial justice, claims of occupancy, freedom of movement, respect, etc., be extended to include non-human nature? In recent months, Europe has begun to explore many of these concerns, noting the trauma experiences of COVID-19 and their interconnection with deepening ecological and health problems as a stimulus to action. This paper notes the relevance of these crisis experiences in moving political debate on the loss of biological diversity forward, prompting a need to extend normative horizons of the common good to include more biologically diverse communities. Full article
Article
The “New Normal” and “Pandemic Populism”: The COVID-19 Crisis and Anti-Hygienic Mobilisation of the Far-Right
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090165 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5626
Abstract
The paper is meant as a timely intervention into current debates on the impact of the global pandemic on the rise of global far-right populism and contributes to scholarly thinking about the normalisation of the global far-right. While approaching the tension between national [...] Read more.
The paper is meant as a timely intervention into current debates on the impact of the global pandemic on the rise of global far-right populism and contributes to scholarly thinking about the normalisation of the global far-right. While approaching the tension between national political elites and (far-right) populist narratives of representing “the people”, the paper focuses on the populist effects of the “new normal” in spatial national governance. Though some aspects of public normality of our 21st century urban, cosmopolitan and consumer lifestyle have been disrupted with the pandemic curfew, the underlying gendered, racialised and classed structural inequalities and violence have been kept in place: they are not contested by the so-called “hygienic demonstrations”. A digital pandemic populism during lockdown might have pushed further the mobilisation of the far right, also on the streets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
Article
Tendency to Use Big Data in Education Based on Its Opportunities According to Andalusian Education Students
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090164 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Big Data is configured as a technological element and of increasing educational interest. The need to advance the quality of academic inclusion has led to an unprecedented expansion of educational processes and features. Thus, collecting massive data on educational information is part of [...] Read more.
Big Data is configured as a technological element and of increasing educational interest. The need to advance the quality of academic inclusion has led to an unprecedented expansion of educational processes and features. Thus, collecting massive data on educational information is part of teachers’ daily lives and educational institutions themselves. There is an intense debate about the potential of Big Data in the educational context, especially through learning analytics that favor the appropriate, responsible, and inclusive use of the data collected. The main aim of this article is to analyze user profiles and the tendency to use Big Data and see what factors influence its applicability. This study employs an incidental sample of 265 students of Educational Sciences from Andalusian Universities, (Spain), using an ad-hoc survey. A cluster analysis was conducted together with ordinal regression analysis and decision tree. The results allow us to confirm the existence of two different student profiles, in terms of their perceptions and appraisal of Big Data and its implications in education. Consequently, a higher score is found for that profile that contemplates and positively conceives Big Data in terms of learning opportunities and improvement of educational quality. The research demonstrates the need to promote Big Data training within the context of university, aiding the acquisition of digital and transversal skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Social Sciences)
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Article
Just a Matter of Time? Women’s Career Advancement in Neo-Liberal Academia. An Analysis of Recruitment Trends in Italian Universities
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090163 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Recently, the Italian higher education system has experienced two profound changes: the strong feminization of its academic staff and the implementation of market-based reforms aimed at fostering cost efficiency and economic productivity. Such reforms include the reshaping of the academic career ladder envisaged [...] Read more.
Recently, the Italian higher education system has experienced two profound changes: the strong feminization of its academic staff and the implementation of market-based reforms aimed at fostering cost efficiency and economic productivity. Such reforms include the reshaping of the academic career ladder envisaged by the last university reform, the so called Gelmini reform (law 240/2010), and the adoption of a performance-based funding system. Both elements occurred in parallel with a strong cut in turnover. By accessing unique data on recruitment covering the last two decades, which were provided by the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research’s statistical office, this study aims at investigating these changes from a gendered perspective. More specifically, it firstly aims at analyzing if the feminization of the academic staff is due to an effective improvement of gender equality in recruitment or, rather, to demographic dynamics; secondly, it investigates to what extent the recent neo-liberal transformations, and more specifically the reshaping of the career structure combined with the limitations on hiring, has had any implications in terms of women’s recruitment and advancement. The results suggest that the road to gender equality is extremely slow and non-linear. The introduction, with the Gelmini reform, of the new fixed-term assistant professor has tightened female access to the tenure track. Moreover, female recruitment remained substantially unchanged over the period among associate and full professors, thus suggesting that the feminization of the academic staff is not due to an effective improvement of gender equality in recruitment, but also to demographic dynamics, such as the retirement of men who are concentrated in the older cohorts. Full article
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Article
An Adaptive Machine Learning Methodology Applied to Neuromarketing Analysis: Prediction of Consumer Behaviour Regarding the Key Elements of the Packaging Design of an Educational Toy
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090162 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
This research is in response to the question of which aspects of package design are more relevant to consumers, when purchasing educational toys. Neuromarketing techniques are used, and we propose a methodology for predicting which areas attract the attention of potential customers. The [...] Read more.
This research is in response to the question of which aspects of package design are more relevant to consumers, when purchasing educational toys. Neuromarketing techniques are used, and we propose a methodology for predicting which areas attract the attention of potential customers. The aim of the present study was to propose a model that optimizes the communication design of educational toys’ packaging. The data extracted from the experiments was studied using new analytical models, based on machine learning techniques, to predict which area of packaging is observed in the first instance and which areas are never the focus of attention of potential customers. The results suggest that the most important elements are the graphic details of the packaging and the methodology fully analyzes and segments these areas, according to social circumstance and which consumer type is observing the packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Social Sciences)
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Article
Interrelations between After-School Settings and the Delinquency and Emotional-Behavioral Problems of Elementary School Children: Findings from Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090161 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Even though there are different types of after-school settings, numerous studies have focused on formal after-school settings (i.e., after-school programs or ASPs) and their association with children’s academic, physical, and social-emotional behaviors. The few findings from informal settings are also outdated. To bridge [...] Read more.
Even though there are different types of after-school settings, numerous studies have focused on formal after-school settings (i.e., after-school programs or ASPs) and their association with children’s academic, physical, and social-emotional behaviors. The few findings from informal settings are also outdated. To bridge this gap, our study aimed to locate the interrelations between after-school settings and the behavioral outcomes of children with a particular emphasis on children’s delinquency and emotional-behavioral problems. We used the U.S. national dataset, fifth wave of Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (nine-year follow-up), with the binary logistic and ordinary least square regression analyses. With a sample size of 3320, we found that children in parental care were reported to commit less delinquency than children in ASPs. Also, children in non-adult care were reported to have more emotional-behavioral problems than children in ASPs. Educators, school social workers, and policymakers should consider the impact of ASPs on children whose parents are not able to spend significant amounts of time with them. In particular, public assistance should be utilized in such a way that helps parents to achieve their children’s positive behavioral outcomes. At the same time, government and community assistance should be provided to enhance the quality of ASPs for the positive results of emotional-behavioral problems of elementary school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Family Well-Being)
Review
Street Gang Intervention: Review and Good Lives Extension
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090160 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Tackling street gangs has recently been highlighted as a priority for public health. In this paper, the four components of a public health approach were reviewed: (1) surveillance, (2) identifying risk and protective factors, (3) developing and evaluating interventions at primary prevention, secondary [...] Read more.
Tackling street gangs has recently been highlighted as a priority for public health. In this paper, the four components of a public health approach were reviewed: (1) surveillance, (2) identifying risk and protective factors, (3) developing and evaluating interventions at primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary intervention stages, and (4) implementation of evidence-based programs. Findings regarding the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs for street gang members were mixed, with unclear goals/objectives, limited theoretical foundation, and a lack of consistency in program implementation impeding effectiveness at reducing street gang involvement. This paper proposes that the Good Lives Model (GLM), a strengths-based framework for offender rehabilitation, provides an innovative approach to street gang intervention. Utilizing approach-goals, the GLM assumes that improving an individual’s internal skills and external opportunities will reduce the need to become involved in street gangs. Wrapping the GLM framework around current evidence-based interventions (e.g., Functional Family Therapy) increases client engagement and motivation to change, which is notably poor amongst those at risk of, or involved in, street gangs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
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Article
Smallholder Farmers’ Perspectives on Advisory Extension Services: A Case Study of the Gamo Communities of Southern Ethiopia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090159 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1714
Abstract
This is a case study-based research project investigating the status of Advisory Extension Services in southern Ethiopia. The goal was to determine whether available service provisions meet the requirements of smallholder farmers and enabled them to improve their farming practices and livelihoods. A [...] Read more.
This is a case study-based research project investigating the status of Advisory Extension Services in southern Ethiopia. The goal was to determine whether available service provisions meet the requirements of smallholder farmers and enabled them to improve their farming practices and livelihoods. A combination of an exploratory inductive approach and mixed methods was used (e.g., questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews). Participants included members of farming households, and agents, experts, and providers working in the agricultural rural sector. The key findings suggested that limited access to resources and unpredictable environmental conditions were stifling smallholder farmer innovation and livelihoods. Service provisions should be better tailored to local conditions, provide greater resource access, and work more closely with farmers. The development and implementation of service provision should involve a wide range of institutions and farmers throughout the process. Local community- and farmer-based organisations are especially important, and can work alongside innovative and talented farmers to enable more effective dissemination of information. Agricultural rural development and service provision should focus greater attention on the views and perspectives of farmers from a range of areas with differing socio-demographic and agro-ecological characteristics for comparative analysis. Full article
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Article
Keeping the Nazi Menace Out: George Lincoln Rockwell and the Border Control System in Australia and Britain in the Early 1960s
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090158 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
In the early 1960s, the American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell was invited by neo-Nazi groups in Australia and Britain to come to their respective countries. On both occasions, the minister for immigration in Australia and the home secretary in Britain sought [...] Read more.
In the early 1960s, the American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell was invited by neo-Nazi groups in Australia and Britain to come to their respective countries. On both occasions, the minister for immigration in Australia and the home secretary in Britain sought to deny Rockwell entry to the country on the grounds that he was not conducive to the public good and threatened disorder. This was done using the border control and visa system that existed in both countries, which allowed the government to exclude from entry certain individuals that were proponents of extreme or “dangerous” political ideologies. In the post-war period, explicit neo-Nazism was seen as a dangerous ideology and was grounds for exclusion of foreigners, even though domestic political parties espousing the same ideology were allowed to exist. Rockwell never came to Australia, but illicitly entered Britain via Ireland in 1962 before being deported, which highlighted potential problems for the British controlling passage across the Irish Sea. Rockwell’s exclusion and deportation also became a touchpoint for future debates in British politics about the denial of entry and deportation of political figures. This article reveals that the Australian and British governments, while allowing far-right organisations to lawfully exist in their countries, also sought to ban the entry of foreign actors who espoused similar politics. This was due to concerns about potential public disorder and violence, but also allowed both governments to portray white supremacism and racial violence as foreign to their own countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
Article
Towards a Comprehensive School Effectiveness Model of Citizenship Education: An Empirical Analysis of Secondary Schools in The Netherlands
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090157 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
We still have only a limited understanding of the effectiveness of schools in promoting citizenship, the factors explaining this effectiveness and the way in which these aspects interact. Using elaborate cross-sectional data from students, teachers, team leaders and school leaders at 78 Dutch [...] Read more.
We still have only a limited understanding of the effectiveness of schools in promoting citizenship, the factors explaining this effectiveness and the way in which these aspects interact. Using elaborate cross-sectional data from students, teachers, team leaders and school leaders at 78 Dutch secondary schools, this study empirically examines a school effectiveness model of citizenship education in order to achieve a more comprehensive explanation of citizenship competence acquisition. Using multilevel structural equation models, we analyze direct and indirect school-level predictors of student knowledge, attitudes and self-evaluated skills regarding citizenship. Four aspects of citizenship education are examined: the school’s policies regarding citizenship education, its teaching practices, and its professional and pedagogical learning environment (i.e., teaching community and classroom climate). With respect to school policies, positive effects are found for the attention paid to citizenship education in staff meetings. The professional learning environment is related to students’ citizenship competences mainly indirectly, via the average classroom climate. Effects of teaching practices vary: more emphasis on monitoring is more frequently found at schools with lower average levels of citizenship competences, whereas schools that let students choose their own topics in class have on average higher levels of citizenship competences. Full article
Article
How Individual Involvement with Digitalized Work and Digitalization at the Workplace Level Impacts Supervisory and Coworker Bullying in German Workplaces
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090156 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Digitalized work has gained importance across industrialized countries. Simultaneously, research investigating the consequences of digitalized work for workplace relations among employees, supervisors, and coworkers, such as workplace bullying, is largely missing. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to [...] Read more.
Digitalized work has gained importance across industrialized countries. Simultaneously, research investigating the consequences of digitalized work for workplace relations among employees, supervisors, and coworkers, such as workplace bullying, is largely missing. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to investigate how digitalized work influences supervisory and coworker bullying dependent on individual, job, and workplace characteristics. We use representative linked-employer-employee data from 3612 employees located in 100 large workplaces in Germany across all industrial sectors and apply random effects multilevel linear analyses. Individual involvement in digitalized work is related to less supervisory bullying for all employees, and for lower qualified employees to less coworker bullying. At the workplace level, when digitalization has advanced, supervisory bullying increases for highly qualified employees. Neither the individual nor the workplace effects of digitalization are explained by mediating factors such as job autonomy, routine or machine work, competency, or psychological or physical stress. Competence and job autonomy prevent the occurrence of bullying, while routine work, psychological stress, and physically demanding work are positively related to bullying. All effects are more pronounced for supervisory bullying than for coworker bullying. Individual involvement with digitalized work seems to change relational dynamics within workplaces and to protect employees from bullying. For highly qualified employees, this is probably related to the gathering of key competencies; for lower qualified employees, it might be linked to working with digital devices. In workplaces where digitalization has progressed, digitalized work may disrupt and change the established work processes and relations and increase the necessity for new coordination and, thus, the occurrence of conflicts. Full article
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Article
Does Scientific Evaluation Matter? Improving Digital Simulation Games by Design-Based Research
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090155 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Grounded in a design-based research approach, the aim of this article is to determine whether scientific evaluations help to (a) identify and fix problems in educational interventions and (b) eventually foster a more effective and positive evaluated intervention. Therefore, data from a longer-term [...] Read more.
Grounded in a design-based research approach, the aim of this article is to determine whether scientific evaluations help to (a) identify and fix problems in educational interventions and (b) eventually foster a more effective and positive evaluated intervention. Therefore, data from a longer-term evaluation of short digital simulation games about the European Parliament for civic education in schools were used. The data included three cycles of interventions with pre- and post-evaluations starting with the first prototype in 2015/2016 (n = 209), the second cycle in 2017/18 (n = 97), and the last one in 2019/20 (n = 222). After each evaluation, major problems and critiques regarding the simulation game were discussed with the developers, and changes were implemented in the game design. The four most important problems, the processes by which they were improved and the reactions of the participants in the following evaluations are pointed out in the article. A comparison of the last and first evaluation cycle showed an overall improvement of the simulation game regarding its effectiveness in transferring EU knowledge and the participants’ general satisfaction with the simulation game. This study underlines the value of the design-based research approach for developing educational interventions and can be useful for further work on civic education measures and the implementation of digital simulation games. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Gentrification on the Elderly: A Case Study in the City of Cáceres
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090154 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1908
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the consequences of the gentrification process as a result of tourism on the elderly inhabitants. Firstly, the concept of gentrification is reviewed, a process that is no longer exclusive to large cities but has spread to smaller and [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the consequences of the gentrification process as a result of tourism on the elderly inhabitants. Firstly, the concept of gentrification is reviewed, a process that is no longer exclusive to large cities but has spread to smaller and lesser-known municipalities. A clear example of this type of new tourist destination is the city of Cáceres, a World Heritage medium-sized city where tourism is the basis of its economy. The research considers gentrification in medium-sized cities and its effect on active aging. Based on a qualitative methodological approach, a total of 32 in-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed to compare two neighborhoods—one gentrified and one not. The results show a remarkable disparity in the residents’ perceptions of their environment and their city. The findings suggest adverse effects on the quality of aging due to the gentrification process, such as family dependency, social-space disconnection, and a generally pessimistic image of the neighborhood. Consequently, the impact of tourism negatively affects the gentrified neighborhood inhabitants’ psychological, social, and emotional well-being. Full article
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Article
Social and Political Attitudes of Moscow Students on the Background of the All-Russia and Regional Youth Studies
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090153 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The purpose of the article is to study the socio-political attitudes of Moscow students, which determine their life strategies in the public sphere. An empirical basis for the study was the sociological survey of students of three universities in Moscow (n = 768). [...] Read more.
The purpose of the article is to study the socio-political attitudes of Moscow students, which determine their life strategies in the public sphere. An empirical basis for the study was the sociological survey of students of three universities in Moscow (n = 768). The questionnaire was partially based on Milton Rokeach’s terminal personal values indicators and the methodology of studying political culture of Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, adapted to a Russian context. The survey data operationalization let us represent a structural model of socio-political attitudes of Moscow students, which consists of indicators of four levels: value, emotional, cognitive, and strategic. The results showed that students in Moscow share the values and patriotic feelings of the elder generations. The influence of gender and age factors was most pronounced on the level of personal values. Despite of the field of their study, students in Moscow can be described as quite energetic and optimistic young citizens, equally family and career oriented with not a high interest in politics and weak political activity. Authors discussed their main findings with the results of previously obtained all-Russian and regional youth studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Article
Service Organisations’ Cultural Competency When Working with Ethnic Minority Victims/Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: Results from a Program Evaluation Study in Australia
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090152 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Founded in the results of a systematic literature review, a professional development program was developed about the needs of ethnic minority victims/survivors of child sexual abuse, with one component on the role of organisations. The objective was to address the misperception that frontline [...] Read more.
Founded in the results of a systematic literature review, a professional development program was developed about the needs of ethnic minority victims/survivors of child sexual abuse, with one component on the role of organisations. The objective was to address the misperception that frontline workers are more responsible for cultural competency. The program was delivered across Australia in 2019 (T1 n = 112, T2 n = 44). Data collection for the program evaluation was conducted over six months using a mixed-methods design. The results show that: (a) a sizeable portion of organisations (16%) do not have any ethnic minority staff, and very few are in management positions (6–13%); (b) ethnic minority staff, and staff in organisations specialised for ethnic minority communities, offer choice to clients about ethnically-matched service providers more often; (c) there is evidence supporting the usefulness of ongoing training; (d) the use of a multicultural framework was rated higher ‘in principle’ than ‘in practice’, and ratings increased after the program; (e) the proportion of organisations collecting ethnicity-related data did not increase over time; (f) all organisations specialised for ethnic minority communities had visually inclusive websites but was only 54% for mainstream organisations; and (g) organisations specialised for ethnic minority communities have stronger links with other local ethnic minority community organisations. Overall, the program is seen as useful for promoting cultural competency at the organisational level; clearly identifying key mandatory and ideal elements, which support good practice with this highly vulnerable and marginalised client group. Full article
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Article
“Should I Stay, or Should I Go?”: The Experiences of, and Choices Available to Women of South Asian Heritage Living in the UK When Leaving a Relationship of Choice Following Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090151 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Researching South Asian women who have departed social norms and married outside the social conventions of their culture widens our understanding and knowledge on the topic of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This paper will investigate how the women participating in the research navigated [...] Read more.
Researching South Asian women who have departed social norms and married outside the social conventions of their culture widens our understanding and knowledge on the topic of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This paper will investigate how the women participating in the research navigated the socialisation of arranged marriage and expectations on them as women, and how this influenced their decisions to remain in violent and abusive relationships. Often without family support or the “safety net” of an arranged marriage, the women stayed in abusive relationships longer than they would have done if the marriage had been arranged. The findings show that the women’s experiences of leaving the relationship are mediated by the context of forming an intimate relationship. A qualitative research approach using Black Feminist Standpoint Epistemology employed thematic analysis to give voice to South Asian women’s experiences and insights into their experiences of, and responses to, leaving abusive relationships. The analysis shows that women’s agentic act of choosing a partner became the very barrier to leaving the relationship if it turned violent and abusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaving a Violent Relationship)
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Article
When Sexting Crosses the Line: Educator Responsibilities in the Support of Prosocial Adolescent Behavior and the Prevention of Violence
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090150 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
This article presents findings from a systematic literature review that examined various forms of adolescent sexting, and as relevant to educator responsibilities in the support of prosocial behavior and teen dating violence (TDV) prevention within the United States. Proceeding in three parts, part [...] Read more.
This article presents findings from a systematic literature review that examined various forms of adolescent sexting, and as relevant to educator responsibilities in the support of prosocial behavior and teen dating violence (TDV) prevention within the United States. Proceeding in three parts, part one documents study methodology and offers an overview of adolescent sexting. This section also discusses tensions between sexting as adolescent empowerment and as a form of dating violence. This is followed by a deeper examination of how adolescent sexting is connected to other forms of sexual violence documented to disproportionately affect heterosexual females. Though laws on sexting are minimal, part three discusses U.S. federal and Supreme Court guidance having particular significance for this issue. This section also presents the case of New York State (NYS) to consider the connection between localized policies and schooling practices. Concerned with sexting as a form of consensual adolescent behavior, this article concludes with considerations for educational research, policy, and practice. This article contributes to established research literature weighing the prosocial aspects of sexting against those factors that contribute to and make it difficult to leave a violent relationship. Though empirical research was limited, it also highlights existent research on sexting as relevant to underserved and marginalized adolescent subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaving a Violent Relationship)
Article
Women in the Extreme and Radical Right: Forms of Participation and Their Implications
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(9), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090149 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
The recent inclusion of male supremacy under the umbrella of right-wing extremism (RWE) can obscure the allure that the extreme and radical right holds for some women. This study examines women’s participation in the extreme and radical right to advance a novel conceptualization [...] Read more.
The recent inclusion of male supremacy under the umbrella of right-wing extremism (RWE) can obscure the allure that the extreme and radical right holds for some women. This study examines women’s participation in the extreme and radical right to advance a novel conceptualization for engagement. Accordingly, six forms of participation are proposed, being violent actors, thinkers, facilitators, promoters, activists, and as gendered exemplars for others. This has implications for operations, ideology, and identity. First, women’s participation in violence has commonly been in conjunction with a group or a two-person dyad; it is rare that they operate as lone actors. Women also facilitate or sustain violent operations, through engaging in support activities that contribute to mission completion. Second, women create and promote radical right-wing ideology, challenge select discourses and magnify others to cultivate ideologically symbolic expressions of femininity. Third, such expressions contribute to extreme and radical belief systems, and provides select women with identity security and personal meaning. It is therefore possible to observe an ideological ecosystem spanning the extreme and radical right, in which women participate and interact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
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