Women in the Extreme and Radical Right: Forms of Participation and Their Implications
3. Definitions and Methods
4. Literature Review
5. Forms of Participation
5.1. First Form: Violent Actors
5.2. Second Form: Thinkers
5.3. Third Form: Facilitators
5.4. Fourth Form: Promoters
5.5. Fifth Form: Activists
5.6. Sixth Form: Exemplars
7. Operational Implications
8. Ideological Implications
9. Identity Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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This is not a comprehensive coverage of women engaged in hate crime, especially given the skinhead movement’s Red Shoelace initiation.
While these women were the only ones convicted of crimes related to The Order, the wives, girlfriends, and daughters of The Order performed a significant amount of support work (Belew 2018, p. 129).
Largely driven by the Toronto massage parlour stabbing on 24 February 2020, Scott Beierle’s attack on 2 November 2018 in Tallahassee, Alek Minassian’s alleged attack on 23 April 2018 in Toronto, and Elliot Rodgers’ attack on 23 May 2014 in Isla Vista.
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
|NA||Together with partner Andrew Costas, Matathias was arrested for allegedly defacing religious property, arson, and malicious destruction of property targeting places of worship (AP 2020).|
|Black Hebrew Israelite Movement||Together with partner David Anderson, Graham is accused of murdering a Jersey City detective and shooting three individuals at a Jersey City Kosher supermarket on 10 December 2019. The attack was later described by FBI officials as domestic terrorism. They are also suspected of the murder of Michael Rumberger earlier on 7 December 2019 (Gold 2019).|
|NA||Together with partner James Gamble, Souvannarath allegedly planned a firebombing and shooting attack on Halifax Shopping Centre in 2015. She also ran a blog called Cockswastica (Lamoureux 2019).|
|NA||Brewer, with partner Nolan Brewer, allegedly vandalized an Indiana Synagogue with swastikas and set fire to the yard in 2018. Plans to use Drano bombs (pressurized IEDs) were changed at the last minute (Mettler 2019).|
|National Socialist Underground||Zschape, along with two men, was convicted for her part in a campaign of assassination against ten migrants and a police officer between 1999 and 2011. The judge suggested during sentencing that Zschape was critical in the group’s undercover operations (Hillebrand 2018).|
|Klavern 1500, Invisible Empire, Ku Klux Klan||Dartez, along with four men, was indicted for three counts of cross burning the home of three black men, in addition to intimidation, and using fire to commit a felony in 2003. She was the driver for the attack, and also held a role as Klavern secretary (Court of Appeals 2010).|
|World Church of the Creator, Prison Outreach Program||Chase, with partner Leo Felton, was convicted of bank robbery. It is also alleged they engaged in counterfeiting, purchased firearms, and began construction of an explosive device in 2002. They planned to bomb Jewish targets, or kill Jewish, black, or civil rights leaders to trigger a race war (Justia 2005).|
|Volksfront||Frye, along with three men, allegedly beat a homeless man to death, believing he was a drug dealer in 2003. Frye was pregnant with an accomplice’s child at the time of the attack, which was believed to be an initiation for red shoelaces (SPLC 2004).|
|Blood and Honour, Women for Aryan Unity||Greenwood, with partner John McCabe, was charged with possession of bomb making materials, including 50 gallons of gasoline and battery-operated clocks. Greenwood also founded Women for Aryan Unity and launched the Aryan Baby Drive (Blee 2005).|
|White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan||In 1970, Ainsworth and two men were implicated in a string of bombings against black and Jewish targets in 1967 and 1968 (Wexler 2015).|
|The Order, Bruder Schweigen||Craig, in addition to other Order members, was implicated in the killing of Jewish radio host Alan Berg in 1984. Craig allegedly followed Berg for weeks before the attack, filming and taking photographs (Hilliard 1987).|
|Army of God||Shannon was allegedly involved in firebombing six abortion clinics, two acid attacks, and was found guilty of shooting and wounding a Wichita abortion doctor in 1993 (Thomas 2018).|
|Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord||Williams, along with husband Londell, was charged with threatening an informer, possessing an automatic rifle, and planning to assassinate Democratic presidential candidate Reverend Jesse Jackson in 1988 (Canberra Times 1988).|
|Possibly by Paramilitary Sports Group Hoffmann||An unknown woman claimed responsibility for the bomb laid at the Munich Octoberfest on 26 September 1980, killing twelve and wounding 200 (AAP-AP 1980; Manthe 2019a).|
|Aryan Nations, Aryan Girls||Attwood, with lover Robert Edhouse and friend Corey Dymock, allegedly murdered Attwood’s former partner, Alan Taylor. Attwood was the leader of Aryan Girls (Clarke 2018).|
|Paramilitary Sports Group Hoffmann||Birkmann, along with Uwe Behrendt and Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, was implicated in the murder of a Jewish publisher and Rabbi, Schlomo Lewin and his partner in 1980. Birkmann’s sunglasses were found at the scene of the crime, although she was acquitted of conspiracy to commit murder (Manthe 2019b).|
|Otte Group and Uhl/Wolfgram Group||Hewicker and the Otte Group allegedly participated in several crimes including targeting courts of law to disrupt with lawsuits against comrades. Among these crimes was a bank robbery, for which Hewicker received a six-year prison sentence (Manthe 2019c; Kruglanski et al. 2020).|
|Deutsche Aktionsgruppen||Vorderbrugge committed several lethal arson attacks in Hamburg in August 1980, killing two Vietnamese refugees. She received life imprisonment for murder (Manthe 2019c).|
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
USA and Sweden
|3Fourteen Radio, Red Ice TV||Lokteff allegedly invokes Viking shield maiden tropes to champion the gendered complementarity of men and women; defines female roles in white supremacist futures; and frames male defense of ‘Western civilization’ as the ultimate romantic gesture towards females (Mattheis 2018).|
|NA||Southern is a social media personality who created a video called “The Great Replacement” in 2017, watched 648,000 times; allegedly promoted the conspiracy theory that the South African government was engaged in genocide against white farmers; and apparently traded heavily on identity politics to oppose immigration, NGOs, and feminism (Southern 2019). She was also alleged to have blamed Muslims for the Holocaust (Ganesh 2018).|
|NA||McCarthy is a social media personality who ran a podcast, Reality Calls, to provide “alternative media”, seemingly celebrating ethnonationalism as a traditional and natural way of life demonized by the mainstream media (McCarthy 2017).|
|NA||Summers, also known as the Dropout Philosopher, is a fiction author and contributor to the Europa Sun and Red Ice Iv. She allegedly challenges Christianity in favor of paganism, claims the Nuremberg trials were a miscarriage of justice, and alleges that the left-wing are modern day witch hunters (Lokteff 2017).|
|NA||Stewart is a blogger and high profile Tradwife tied to various sites, including Wife with A Purpose, who is alleged to have launched the White Baby Challenge to combat what she believed was low white birth rates, leading to replacement by other ethnicities (Judd 2020).|
|Women’s Frontier, World Church of the Creator||Turner was the Women’s Information Coordinator for the World Church of the Creator and author of the ‘Women of the Creativity Revolution’ and ‘The Co-Option of White Women’ (Michael 2006). It is alleged she has argued that feminism uses women as pawns in a white-hating media machine run by Jews (Michael 2009b, p. 136).|
|NA||Rimland is a fiction author of Lebensraum! which allegedly uses the Mennonite identity to project neo-Nazi propaganda, spanning anti-Semitism, holocaust denial, anti-miscegenation, and hatred of non-Germans. Mennonite faith, according to Urry, becomes synonymous with “ethnic pride, Germanness and the Fuhrer” (Urry 1999, p. 121).|
|Savitri Devi Mukherji|
|Third Reich, World Union of National Socialists (WUNS)||Devi was a Hindu-Nordicist who allegedly rejected Judeo-Christian beliefs and embraced Aryan-Vedic culture and national socialism as a religion of nature. Her work, The Lighting and the Sun, was highly acclaimed by contemporary neo-Nazis in the sixties, seventies, and eighties. More recently, her teachings have been adopted by the American ‘alt-right’ (Goodrick-Clarke 2002).|
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
|National Action||Patatas was convicted of membership of National Action, a proscribed terrorist group in the UK. She was active in private discussions, allegedly saying that “all Jews must be put to death” but the extent of her activity is not yet public (Simone 2018).|
|Blood and Honour, National Socialist Underground||Probst and her husband owned a far-right apparel store and sold military items in Saxony. She allegedly gave her passport to Zschape and made plans with BnH to extradite the NSU trio to South Africa (Koehler 2017, p. 144).|
|Blood and Honour, National Socialist Underground, White Brotherhood Erzgebirge (WBE)||Struck was part of a BnH subsection, White Brotherhood Erzgebirge (WBE) living in Chemnitz. Struck and her boyfriend allegedly gave their names to the NSU to use as alias personalities, with Zschape using Struck’s identity. In a separate event, Struck and her boyfriend also provided a safe house for two skinheads from the 88ers in the late nineties (Koehler 2017, p. 144).|
|Blood and Honour, National Socialist Underground||Walther and her boyfriend allegedly supported the NSU in the late nineties by reclaiming Zschape’s keys, and otherwise securing evidence or items for the NSU (Koehler 2017, p. 137).|
|The Order||Tornatzky allegedly helped count 3.5 million USD stolen by The Order from an armored car in 1985. She also helped plan another robbery that was never undertaken (AP 1985).|
|The Order||Merki, with husband Robert, allegedly engaged in racketeering and counterfeiting among other crimes, on behalf of The Order in 1984. The proceeds were apparently used to purchase weapons (Khalsa 1986).|
|Aryan Nations||Davila, together with her husband Rafael Davila, was charged with illegally obtaining top-secret military documents to disseminate for profit in 1999. She allegedly sold three packets of documents for 6000 USD (AP 2003).|
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
|Brittany Pettibone née Sellner|
|NA||Sellner is a social media personality who ran a podcast called Virtue of The West and was allegedly active in the 2017 Defend Europe campaign (Ganesh 2018). Her videos often focus on women’s issues.|
|American Renaissance||Heide is a blogger and writer for American Renaissance who allegedly writes on topics such as single-ethnic couples, white dating, and anti-miscegenation (Heide 2019).|
|Radix Journal||Davenport is allegedly a blogger and writer for altright.com and Radix Journal between 2016 and 2017 and has been described as one of the “poster girls” (Gaugele 2019).|
|NA||SOPH is a fourteen-year-old YouTube personality who went viral in 2019 for her sarcastic video Be Not Afraid in which she wears a hijab and targets Muslims (among others) which gained 800,000 views (Bernstein 2019).|
|Patriotic Alternative||Towler is a YouTube creator with 50.7 thousand subscribers as of April 2020, who allegedly promotes replacement theory, white identity politics, and the deportation of migrants to achieve a white Britain (Towler 2020).|
|NA||Faucheux runs the No Time For Silence website, which appears to act as an index to promote extreme right individuals, from Adolf Hitler to William Pierce to fellow radical women such as Laura Southern; and ideas such as white genocide, ZOG, white guilt, and replacement (Faucheux n.d.).|
|Blonde in the Belly of the Beast|
|NA||Beast is a podcaster and YouTuber with 127,000 subscribers as of April 2020. One video, watched over a hundred thousand times, allegedly seeks to excuse and explain the actions of terrorist Brenton Tarrant as a logical reaction to western culture and nihilism (Blonde in the Belly of the Beast 2019).|
|NA||Riley is a YouTuber with 31.2K subscribers, who ran Girl Talk, where she talks with other promoters and uses other clips. Her most popular video, “I lost all my friends in the culture war” was viewed 234K times (Riley 2020).|
|NA||Emerick is a writer and author, as well as allegedly the editor of the “first unabashedly pro-west history and culture magazine, Europa Sun” according to her Amazon profile (Emerick 2019).|
|Faith J Goldy|
|NA||Goldy is a YouTube personality with 104,000 subscribers as of April 2020. She allegedly talks on matters of identity, nationalism, Catholicism, and degeneracy, and recently, made an unsuccessful bid for mayor of Toronto (Goldy 2020).|
|NA||Beltran is a YouTuber with 3.27K subscribers, who allegedly interviews other alt-right personalities such as Lana Lokteff, Avi Yemini, and Gavin McInnes (Beltran 2020).|
|Azov Battalion||Semenyaka is the leader of the International Department for the National Corps, linked to neo-Nazi Azov Battalion (FBI 2017). She is allegedly the spokesperson for the movement (Colborne 2019).|
|Gemma Bernadette Kits|
|NA||Kits is an Instagrammer (@gemkits) with 1109 followers as of April 2020 who allegedly shares white nationalist content, frequently with the white power “okay” hand movement, and has been accused of trolling.|
|Canadian Heritage Alliance||Guille designs and maintains the website of the Canadian Heritage Alliance, considered to be a white supremacy group (Monteiro 2001).|
|NA||Twitter user @Philosophi_Cat (also known as Cat Weiss) has 6654 followers as of April 2020 and runs a YouTube channel with 9.34 k subscribers discussing concepts like femininity, gender interactions, and a series called Revolt against the Modern World (PhilosophiCat 2020).|
|Right Wing Art Squad||This individual draws in Manga/Waifu style. She restyles existing XRW memes, such as those depicting Christchurch terrorist Brenton Tarrant, and uses prominent RWE symbols (Manoncaroni 2020).|
|Right Wing Art Squad||This individual posts Waifu style drawings, redistributes memes, drawings, and content celebrating Brenton Tarrant and Dylan Roof. She allegedly encourages women to have children or martyr themselves (MissGorehoundArt 2020).|
|Right Wing Art Squad||FrauleinFashArt posts memes, usually modified graphic photographs, which commonly celebrate Hitler, Nazi Germany, and female shield maidens (FrauleinFashArt 2020).|
|National Socialist Movement||Debolt is a fetish model who poses for NSM records, Deviant Art, and online advertising companies (Potok 2013).|
|The Order||Lane, with husband David, created the publishing outfit, 14 Words Press, which Katja ran to disperse David Lane’s ideological writings (Michael 2009a).|
|Knights Party of the Ku Klux Klan||Pendergraft and her father hosted a weekly radio and television show (Dentice 2013). Pendergraft is allegedly the national membership coordinator of the Knights Party of the KKK (Chan 2015).|
|Third Reich||Riefenstahl was an actress and cinematographer during Nazi Germany. A scene from her film, Triumph of the Will, depicted Nazis marching through the streets with torches chanting “You will not replace us”—a scene replicated in Charlottesville 2017. She is celebrated on Bre Faucheux’s website.|
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
|Brown Cross, National Democratic Party of Germany||Reifling was a member and later leader of the Ring of National Women within the National Democratic Party of Germany (NDP) (Fekete 2012).|
|Lisa Beulah (nee Sandford)|
|One Nation, Lads Society||Beulah and her husband were allegedly found to be involved in a group which infiltrated the Young Nationals group in New South Wales, Australia in 2018 to alter their immigration policy. She was known as MsNatSocialist on Discord forums (Worthington et al. 2019).|
|United Patriots Front||Norris alleges that she handled the finance for the United Patriots Front, an anti-Islam group in Australia which later rebranded itself the Lad’s Society (Koslay 2016).|
|NA||Ligner leads self-defense courses for white women to protect themselves from being raped by Muslim refugees (Zuquete 2018, p. 186).|
|Female wing of Generation Identity||Franziska is a leader of the 120 Decibels campaign. This is a campaign against the abuse of European women by migrants. The campaign invokes Ebba, Mia, and Maria (Zuquete 2018, p. 193).|
|NA||Weir runs If Americans Knew, an organization which allegedly claims to tell Americans the truth which is supposedly withheld by news media. The ADL argues that Weir is anti-Semitic (ADL 2013).|
|NA||Chabloz is a blogger known for writing and performing songs which allegedly mock the holocaust. She was convicted and handed a 20-week suspended sentence (BBC 2019).|
|NA||Schaefer is a YouTube personality known for calling the Holocaust the “six-million lie”. Schaefer, and her brother Alfred, were convicted for incitement to hatred while in Germany for Sylvia Stolz’s trial for the same charge (Snowdon 2018).|
|Nicole Childers, also known as Vigdís|
|Hammerskins, Women for Aryan Unity||Childers was allegedly a moderator for Hammerskin Nation’s Forum 38, writes for Women for the Aryan Unity (WAU), and was actively engaged in Stormfront (Potok 2013). She effectively bridged the WAU and Hammerskin movements.|
|National Vanguard, various others||Gaede was the mother of the twin girls who performed in Prussian Blue and she received David Lane’s body after his death in prison (SPLC 2020).|
|British National Party Wives||Cass was one of the alleged founders of BNP Wives who was interviewed by SkyTV in 2008 (Durham 2015, p. 81).|
|British National Party||Ebanks was the successful BNP candidate for Birmingham in 2007, but lost her seat after a recount (Durham 2015, p. 73).|
|British National Party||Duffy was the BNP candidate of Charnwood who was successfully elected in 2007 (Durham 2015, p. 73).|
|British National Party||Graham was allegedly the BNP party development officer. She was later expelled from the party (Durham 2015, p. 81).|
|British National Party||Daughter of Chairman Nick Griffin, Jennifer often spoke on behalf of the BNP and allegedly sought a leadership role (Durham 2015, p. 82).|
|British National Party||In the late 1990s, Edwards stood as deputy to the BNP chairman, and organized the family offshoot, Renaissance, and family fun days (Durham 2015, p. 79).|
|British National Party||Jones was allegedly the North West regional organizer for the BNP and acted as a spokesperson (Durham 2015, p. 80). She was later expelled from the party.|
|British National Party, BNP Wives||Guest was a BNP organizer and frequent party candidate in Rotherham (Durham 2015, p. 81). She also featured in the SkyTV BNP Wives documentary.|
|PROFAM and BNP Wives||Mozar apparently set up the PROFAM website ostensibly separate to BNP, while she held BNP membership (Durham 2015, p. 79).|
|American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan||Ryan is also known as Kathryn Christy Sonner Negley Hedrick. In 1999, Ryan was believed to be the state leader of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (AKKKK) in Pennsylvania (SPLC 1999).|
|NA||Corcoran is an anti-immigration and anti-refugee activist who heads Refugee Resettlement Watch and is the author of Refugee Resettlement and Hijra to America (Griswold 2016).|
|Women for Aryan Unity, Blood and Honour||Cahill is believed to be a leader of WAU. She allegedly fundraises for WAU, and promotes networks with BnH, with whom she undertook weapons training. She also allegedly engages on Stormfront (Potok 2013).|
|Aryan Women’s League||Metzger was the wife of Tom Metzger of White Aryan Resistance (WAR). In the late 1980s, she ran the Aryan Women’s League as a supplementary group and published far right materials focusing on home, family, and white birth rates (Belew 2018, p. 167).|
|National Front||Sisson was, for a short time, leader of the Australian chapter of the National Front (1980). She also had connections with the National Front in New Zealand.|
|Ku Klux Klan||Bacon was a prominent American jockey who became publicly linked to the KKK in 1974. She told media that “When one of your wives or one of your sisters gets raped… you’ll get smart and join the Klan” (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Bergeron was apparently the area coordinator for the KKK in New Orleans (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Hoyt was apparently the Exalted Cyclops of the New Orleans den of the KKK (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Schoonmaker was apparently the director of the Northern Independent Ku Klux Klan of New York State (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Wilkinson was supposedly the information officer for the KKK in her congressional district (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Wife of David Duke, Chloe was believed to be Grand Geni of a Louisianan Klan chapter (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Ku Klux Klan||Badon was believed to be a member of the KKK in Louisiana and part of the same den as Duke (Klemesrud 1975).|
|Name and Country||Organizational Links||Activity and Source|
|NA||The Tradwife movement has many radical right champions, such as Ayla Stewart of the White Baby Challenge, Lacey Lynn, Alena Kate Pettitt, and the Blonde Buttermaker. These individuals are seen to conform to the idealized standard. They often counter feminist narratives by arguing the natural role of women is as wives and mothers (Stendahl 2020). In the radical right, this becomes a racial position as a reclamation of white heritage, culture, traditions, and identity.|
|Miss Hitler Contestants|
|National Action||National Action ran the Miss Hitler contest in 2016. One contestant, Alice Cutter, entered under the name “Buchenwald princess”, alongside the “Galloping Gestapo”, “Lady of the Lolocaust”, “SugardustedSchutzsta el”, “Eva Bin Gassin”, and “xXKaminski-KochXx”. The point of this contest was allegedly to recruit more female members and to raise the group’s profile. Cutter said that “we need to be the lionesses we ought to be and rip apart hyenas laughing at us as we get raped, beaten, brainwashed and de-feminised en masse” (Halliday 2019).|
|Ku Klux Klan, various militias, Aryan Nations||Sheila Beam was the fourth wife of Louis Beam. When he was being arrested by authorities in 1987, Sheila shot and wounded an officer. She was injured by arresting officers, and her injuring became part of the narrative created about her: a narrative celebrating a defenseless, innocent white woman, willing to sacrifice her life out of devotion to her husband. Belew (2018, p. 176) suggests the community rallied around Sheila, who became a symbol of white sacrifice and used her platform to protest her husband’s innocence.|
|Aryan Nations||Vikki Weaver was the wife of Randy Weaver and mother to an infant daughter. During the Siege of Ruby Ridge, Vikki Weaver held the door open for Randy as government snipers shot at him, while holding her daughter. A stray bullet passed through the door and killed Vikki. The RWE community rallied at her death, conceptualizing her as “the model white woman they failed to protect from a rampant super state” (Belew 2018, p. 188).|
|The Order||Mathews was the wife of Robert J. Mathews who, after his death, achieved celebrity status as his “honored widow” according to Belew (2018, p. 198).|
|National Socialist German Workers Party||Rokk was a dancer, singer, and actress who was considered the epitome of beauty in Nazi Germany. Many styles and beauty models are likely modelled on her style. Her frequent use of winged eyeliner is imitated by female far right YouTubers including Bre Faucheux.|
|The Organization||Katherine was a female member of The Organization in The Turner Diaries fictional novel (MacDonald 1978) who works as a propagandist. She becomes the lover of the protagonist, Earl Turner, and is portrayed as a steadfast and loyal partner doing her part for the revolution (but not a violent actor).|
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Campion, K. Women in the Extreme and Radical Right: Forms of Participation and Their Implications. Soc. Sci. 2020, 9, 149. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090149
Campion K. Women in the Extreme and Radical Right: Forms of Participation and Their Implications. Social Sciences. 2020; 9(9):149. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090149Chicago/Turabian Style
Campion, Kristy. 2020. "Women in the Extreme and Radical Right: Forms of Participation and Their Implications" Social Sciences 9, no. 9: 149. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9090149