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Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 22 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Safeguarding in the context of aid has recently received heightened international attention. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Unethical Managerial Behaviours and Abusive Use of Power in Downwards Vertical Workplace Bullying: A Phenomenological Case Study
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060110 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 264
Abstract
The aim of this article is to introduce an ethical perspective of managerial behaviours to the study of vertical workplace bullying. A framework called the line of impunity was chosen that describes the missuses of power by certain ranks in organizations. Previous research [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to introduce an ethical perspective of managerial behaviours to the study of vertical workplace bullying. A framework called the line of impunity was chosen that describes the missuses of power by certain ranks in organizations. Previous research on bullying addresses several perspectives such as the consequences of the bullying situation for the organization, the target and bystanders, the leadership style of the bully, the perceived structural support, and the manifestations of the abusive behaviours. However, to date, the ethical aspects have been poorly outlined. Applying the line of impunity brings light to several aspects of workplace bullying that are connected to an unethical use of power. This study is unusual because it is a phenomenological research based on two case studies that present the field experiences of two of the authors while working in different organizations, one in Sweden and the other in USA, during an extended period of time. The two main contributions of the study are the new concepts power methods and reinforcing, which highlight the connection between abusive behaviour and the ethical aspects that are present in downwards vertical workplace bullying situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Open AccessArticle
A Socio-Spatial Approach to Enable Inclusive Well-Being in Cities: A Case Study of Birmingham, UK
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060109 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
This article examines density and deprivation, the two important parameters that define health and well-being in cities. Discussions are drawn from a case study conducted in Birmingham in four neighborhoods characterized by their different population density and deprivation levels. Data were collected through [...] Read more.
This article examines density and deprivation, the two important parameters that define health and well-being in cities. Discussions are drawn from a case study conducted in Birmingham in four neighborhoods characterized by their different population density and deprivation levels. Data were collected through questionnaires developed from a set of subjective well-being measures and built environment audits, based on the Irvine Minnesota Inventory that evaluates the quality of streets and walkability in neighborhoods. The inferences from the study support the need for linking health, planning, policy and design research and decision-making to the socio-spatial practices of people, impacting well-being at the everyday level. The findings provide a holistic approach health and well-being research and suggests a conceptual framework for inclusive well-being in cities, which signifies the role of social and spatial parameters in determining peoples’ health and well-being. The study also highlights the lack of interdisciplinary research in understanding the association between well-being and social and behavioral practices in diverse communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion, Public Health, and Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
‘The Feel of the Stones, Sounds of Cars, the Different Smells’: How Incorporating the Senses Can Help Support Equitable Health Promotion
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060108 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
There has been limited consideration to the role of the senses in health promotion regardless of the prominence placed on corporeality in intervention and prevention strategies. Touch as a form of sense-making challenges the representational approaches that characterize health promotion methods to increase [...] Read more.
There has been limited consideration to the role of the senses in health promotion regardless of the prominence placed on corporeality in intervention and prevention strategies. Touch as a form of sense-making challenges the representational approaches that characterize health promotion methods to increase participation in physical activity. This paper explores recreational running practices through the sense of touch and is drawn from an in-depth qualitative research project with recreational runners in the Bulgarian capital Sofia. The project examined how recreational running was established and maintained within the city. This paper concludes that there is potential for health promotion to adopt a more open stance towards the study of sensual experiences of the built environment. Insights from approaches attentive to the senses hold promise for agendas and interventions in health promotion practice and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion, Public Health, and Built Environment)
Open AccessArticle
Control on the ‘Boundary-Work’ in Work-Life Articulation for Flexible Knowledge Workers. Insights into Gender Asymmetries
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060107 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
In the sociological literature, several studies have shown that the economic and organizational changes of the last decade, including the growth of the service sector and the diffusion of new technologies, have altered the productive and reproductive processes as well as their spatial [...] Read more.
In the sociological literature, several studies have shown that the economic and organizational changes of the last decade, including the growth of the service sector and the diffusion of new technologies, have altered the productive and reproductive processes as well as their spatial and temporal dimensions typical of Fordism. In order to shed light on how knowledge workers facing job flexibility and insecurity position themselves with respect to the practices of (de)constructing the boundaries between productive and reproductive domains, specific analytical tools were applied, originating from the interdisciplinary field of boundary-studies, within a perspective focused on gender differences and the subjective experiences of time. With this approach, a discourse analysis was conducted on 37 qualitative interviews with knowledge workers who handle job flexibility and insecurity and who have care responsibilities to uphold at home. The results show that the permeability and flexibility of new (re)productive practices, often presented in neoliberal economy as new opportunities for knowledge workers, especially if they are female, are experienced differently by men and women: for men they represent a new control source, whereas for women they constitute a fictitious, if not constricting, process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
From Social Deviance to Art: Vandalism, Illicit Dumping, and the Transformation of Matter and Form
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060106 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
In this article, assemblage art is presented to visually underscore social discourse relevant to urban vandalism and illegal dumping. The waste emergency, brought about, in part, also by illegal dumping and littering, is experienced on a daily basis across the globe in industrialized [...] Read more.
In this article, assemblage art is presented to visually underscore social discourse relevant to urban vandalism and illegal dumping. The waste emergency, brought about, in part, also by illegal dumping and littering, is experienced on a daily basis across the globe in industrialized and less-industrialized countries alike. Likewise, vandalism is so pervasive in some areas that we have come to normalize it as intrinsic to urban life. The pieces presented here serve as attention-inducers. Destroyed or dumped things are assembled into new forms which symbolically and “totemically” represent [contemporary] collective identity. While the poetics of the art presented is not political, nor was the art created for social purposes, its social impact or social and criminological connection with deviance is a consequence of the “where” the assembled parts were found. The matter collected is transformed and its shapes and its source can now be seen and confronted, rather than avoided. Broken parts become a new whole, and also herein lies another symbolic connection with the world of deviance as far as the obvious possibility for change and transformation, relevant to broken lives and broken communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Criminology)
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Open AccessArticle
Framing “The Gypsy Problem”: Populist Electoral Use of Romaphobia in Italy (2014–2019)
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060105 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Xenophobic arguments have long been at the center of the political discourse of the Lega party in Italy, nonetheless Matteo Salvini, the new leader, capitalizing on diffused Romaphobia, placed Roma people at the center of his political discourse, institutionalizing the “Camp visit” as [...] Read more.
Xenophobic arguments have long been at the center of the political discourse of the Lega party in Italy, nonetheless Matteo Salvini, the new leader, capitalizing on diffused Romaphobia, placed Roma people at the center of his political discourse, institutionalizing the “Camp visit” as an electoral event. Through the analysis of eight consecutive electoral campaigns, in a six year period, mixing computer-based quantitative and qualitative content analysis and framing analysis, this study aims to display how Roma communities are portrayed in Matteo Salvini’s discourse. The study describes how “Gypsies” are framed as a threat to society and how the proposed solution—a bulldozer to raze all of the camps to the ground—is presented as the only option. The paper concludes that representing Roma as an “enemy” that “lives among us”, proves to be the ideal tool to strengthen the “us versus them” tension, characteristic of populist discourse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
Open AccessArticle
Social Impacts of Place-Making in Urban Informal Settlements: A Case Study of Indonesian Kampungs
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060104 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 360
Abstract
This study aims to assess the social outcome of place-making in urban informal settlements. This research is guided by the following research question: What are the relationships between regular and temporal place-making towards local capacity, social connection, local identity, and quality of life? [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the social outcome of place-making in urban informal settlements. This research is guided by the following research question: What are the relationships between regular and temporal place-making towards local capacity, social connection, local identity, and quality of life? Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in two informal settlements in Indonesia. Several indicators were combined from existing literature in order to assess the influence of the place-making on the residents’ perceptions of the four social outcomes. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis were presented while increasing our comprehension of how specific dimensions of place-making, such as nature of activities and their frequency, affect social aspects of the community where the practice took place. The originality of this paper lies in the context of the research and the methodology where it fills the existing gaps in both areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
No Power without Knowledge: A Discursive Subjectivities Approach to Investigate Climate-Induced (Im)mobility and Wellbeing
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060103 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
During the last few decades we have seen a rapid growth in the body of literature on climate-induced human mobility or environmental migration. Meanwhile, in-depth people-centred studies investigating people’s (im)mobility decision-making as a highly complex and sociopsychological process are scarce. This is problematic [...] Read more.
During the last few decades we have seen a rapid growth in the body of literature on climate-induced human mobility or environmental migration. Meanwhile, in-depth people-centred studies investigating people’s (im)mobility decision-making as a highly complex and sociopsychological process are scarce. This is problematic as human decision-making behaviour and responses—including their success or failure—closely align with people’s wellbeing status. In this article, elaborations around why these under-representations of research narratives and existing methods will guide us towards a solution. The article proposes a conceptual model to help fill this gap that is inspired by Michel Foucault’s power and knowledge relationship and discursive subjectivities. The conceptual idea introduced by the article offers as a replicable approach and potential way forward that can support widening empirical research in the area of climate-induced (im)mobility decision-making and wellbeing. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection: Some Introductory Comments
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060102 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
I would like to begin by thanking all of the authors who have contributed to this Social Sciences Special on “critical debates and developments in child protection” for their hard work and timely dedication in responding so positively to the requests and timelines [...] Read more.
I would like to begin by thanking all of the authors who have contributed to this Social Sciences Special on “critical debates and developments in child protection” for their hard work and timely dedication in responding so positively to the requests and timelines made of them [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Open AccessReview
Review of Research Trends in Learning and the Internet in Higher Education
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060101 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Within the scientific literature, there has been much debate about the use of the Internet in teaching in university contexts. The potential of this tool and its educational possibilities is well documented. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the use [...] Read more.
Within the scientific literature, there has been much debate about the use of the Internet in teaching in university contexts. The potential of this tool and its educational possibilities is well documented. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the use of the Internet in university teaching from a bibliometric perspective. To analyze scientific works, scientific mapping strategies have been used; for example, exploring the co-words and co-authors in works on this topic. We have worked with an analysis unit of 5118 documents which are indexed in the Web of Science database. Among the findings of this research, it can be highlighted that most publications are in English—the topic has been thoroughly studied and works have been published in this language over time. Moreover, the United States is the country which is most productive in relation to educational and computing fields. The most relevant topics themes are “e-learning”, “systems” and “Internet of Things”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Procedural Environmental Injustice in ‘Europe’s Greenest City’: A Case Study into the Felling of Sheffield’s Street Trees
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060100 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
With around two million trees within its boundaries, the city of Sheffield, England, is known as the ‘greenest city in Europe’. Of these, 36,000 are ‘street trees’, defined as those planted on pavements and other public rights of way. As of 2012, however, [...] Read more.
With around two million trees within its boundaries, the city of Sheffield, England, is known as the ‘greenest city in Europe’. Of these, 36,000 are ‘street trees’, defined as those planted on pavements and other public rights of way. As of 2012, however, a private contractor was awarded a £2.2 billion contract by Sheffield City Council to upgrade the city’s roads over a 25-year period. This required the felling of over 6000 street trees by the end of August 2017. By 2015, this had sparked such widespread public opposition that the felling programme missed its 2017 deadline. For protesters, the central point of contention was and continues to be the seemingly indiscriminate felling of healthy trees. This article examines the specific forms of harm precipitating local public involvement in such opposition. In doing so, it explains the substantive injustices associated with the felling of street trees before focusing on the underpinning forms of procedural environmental injustice that have allowed for their ongoing production. This contributes to wider green criminological literature by demonstrating how public participation in decision-making is crucial for the attainment of environmental justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Criminology)
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Open AccessArticle
Blame It on Individual or Organization Environment: What Predicts Workplace Deviance More?
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060099 - 09 Jun 2020
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Deviant workplace behavior is one of the widely present employee behaviors that create significant organizational cost, create an unhealthy working environment, and lead to various social and psychological job- and non-job-related consequences. Although various personality, situational, and organizational factors have been analyzed as [...] Read more.
Deviant workplace behavior is one of the widely present employee behaviors that create significant organizational cost, create an unhealthy working environment, and lead to various social and psychological job- and non-job-related consequences. Although various personality, situational, and organizational factors have been analyzed as instigators of such behavior, literature calls for a more comprehensive approach that analyzes interaction and mutual effects of different sources of deviant behavior. This paper explores organizational culture and individual personality as the antecedents of deviant workplace behavior. A multilevel perspective is applied in empirical research that was done on a sample of 251 employees from 11 organizations in Croatia. Results of our research and hierarchical linear modeling imply that individual-related factors, namely, age and gender, as well as personality traits, are greater predictors of both individual and organizational deviance as opposed to organizational culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Open AccessArticle
Safeguarding Children in the Developing World—Beyond Intra-Organisational Policy and Self-Regulation
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060098 - 08 Jun 2020
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Safeguarding in the context of development and humanitarian assistance has received heightened international attention since 2018. Emerging literature has not yet investigated the extent to which responses are evolving in the best interests of the child, in line with the treaty-based rights of [...] Read more.
Safeguarding in the context of development and humanitarian assistance has received heightened international attention since 2018. Emerging literature has not yet investigated the extent to which responses are evolving in the best interests of the child, in line with the treaty-based rights of children. This article makes a unique contribution to scholarship by applying a child rights lens to safeguarding efforts in the aid sector with a focus on the least developed countries in Africa. The article first reviews the safeguarding landscape—providing a snapshot of self-regulatory and standard setting initiatives by non-government organisations (NGOs) and bilateral government donors. Next, the article examines the relevant standards in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child and respective Committee observations to enrich the safeguarding discussion. Finally, the article discusses key dilemmas and remaining challenges for safeguarding children in the developing world. The article suggests that a rights-based approach provides for a more nuanced and contextualised response, avoiding the temptation of ‘tick-box’ exercises driven by reputational management and ‘programming siloes’ imposed by humanitarian and development actors. To support sustained and consistent progress, efforts should go beyond intra-organisational policy and sectoral self-regulation. Child rights law monitoring mechanisms can be leveraged to encourage effective government oversight of NGOs in contact with children, as part of national frameworks for child protection. Donor governments should also consider and increase investment in national and local child protection systems to address risk factors to child abuse and ensure appropriate responses for any child that experiences harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Open AccessReview
Fostering the Social Development of Children with Special Educational Needs or Disabilities (SEND) through Dialogue and Interaction: A Literature Review
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060097 - 08 Jun 2020
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 4 stresses the importance of offering all students an inclusive, quality education, so that they can develop necessary life skills, including academic and social skills. Students with special educational needs and/or disabilities (SEND) not only have greater [...] Read more.
The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 4 stresses the importance of offering all students an inclusive, quality education, so that they can develop necessary life skills, including academic and social skills. Students with special educational needs and/or disabilities (SEND) not only have greater difficulties in their academic development, but they also have some social development limitations. It is therefore necessary to identify which strategies are effective in helping these students develop social skills. Previous research has noted that dialogical learning environments can contribute to promoting inclusion. This paper provides a literature review of interventions, based on social interaction and their impact on the social skills of students with disabilities. A literature search was performed of scientific databases (Web of Science, SCOPUS, PsycINFO and ERIC) to identify research that used dialogue and interaction to promote the development of the social skills of these students. Twenty-nine studies were selected that yielded improved results in the increase and quality of interactions and the promotion of social behaviours, such as initiations, participation, collaboration, social connection, self-regulation and self-image. Based on these results, it can be concluded that interaction-based interventions with an inclusive approach nurture the social skills of students with disabilities, in line with previous research. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Use of Facility Dogs to Bridge the Justice Gap for Survivors of Sexual Offending
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060096 - 08 Jun 2020
Viewed by 617
Abstract
The current study investigated the support that a facility dog can provide to survivors of sexual crimes when undergoing video-recorded police interviews. In total, 13 survivors of sexual offences, who were undergoing a video-recorded interview, were provided with a facility dog for the [...] Read more.
The current study investigated the support that a facility dog can provide to survivors of sexual crimes when undergoing video-recorded police interviews. In total, 13 survivors of sexual offences, who were undergoing a video-recorded interview, were provided with a facility dog for the interview process. For each case, data were collected via interviews, observations and surveys. Using a multiple case study approach, qualitative data were analysed to identify patterns, with observational and survey data used to provide further support to these outcomes. A total of four main themes emerged from the data: (1) a change in focus for the survivor, (2) a difference in the survivors’ engagement, (3) the dog as a comforter to keep the survivor calm and (4) a positive environment. Overall, the findings suggest that the facility dog provided a much needed and beneficial service to survivors, helping them feel calmer and more comfortable. The dog also provided survivors with a more positive environment, allowing them to focus on the interview and communicate more openly about their experiences. The current study, therefore, presents very positive findings relating to improving survivors’ perspectives of justice within the framework of kaleidoscopic justice, bridging their perceived justice gap. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Mental Burden of Family Caregivers of Persons with Health Disabilities in the Czech Republic
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060095 - 08 Jun 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyse the subjective perception of stress burden in family caregivers, especially those caring for disabled and elderly persons. The tool for quantifying the burden was the Meister questionnaire, which describes the basic dimensions of overload in [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the subjective perception of stress burden in family caregivers, especially those caring for disabled and elderly persons. The tool for quantifying the burden was the Meister questionnaire, which describes the basic dimensions of overload in ten items. These were divided into three factors: overload, monotony and the non-specific factor. The research tool was a standardised questionnaire distributed via a snowball method to a group of 484 family caregivers who cared for a person with disability. The findings show that they have to largely rely on the support of social services. Their burden is characterised by the prevalence of the overload factor. The findings also indicate that there is an urgent call among health professionals to identify and treat caregivers’ psychological distress by applying relevant intervention strategies, which could reduce this distress and prevent caregivers’ burnout. Future research should concentrate on the efficacy of intervention strategies which would reduce the overall burden of family caregivers and nurture the family as a whole. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Treatment of Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Spanish Curriculum of the Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO): An Opportunity for Interdisciplinary Teaching
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060094 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Socioeconomic inequality is a burning issue in today’s world. It has been a characteristic feature of human societies since prehistoric times, but it has taken on a special meaning in the West as a result of the economic crises of the 21st century. [...] Read more.
Socioeconomic inequality is a burning issue in today’s world. It has been a characteristic feature of human societies since prehistoric times, but it has taken on a special meaning in the West as a result of the economic crises of the 21st century. We analyze the six elements of the Spanish national curriculum to learn how these dissymmetries are treated in seven Social Sciences and Humanities subjects in Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO). For this qualitative study with quantitative contributions, thirty-five keywords were selected; a detailed system of categories was configured for the treatment and analysis of the curriculum; and three levels of progression and complexity were introduced with respect to this problem in order to classify four educational curricula. The outcomes for the State legislation and for the three Autonomous Communities examined (Andalusia, the Chartered Community of Navarre, and Galicia) did not reach a level suitable for training a critical citizenship that seeks greater social balances. An interdisciplinary teaching–learning process must be carried out in Social Science Didactics, which makes connections between and reflects on the origin of socioeconomic inequality and its serious consequences for Humanity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wildlife Crime: A Crime of Hegemonic Masculinity?
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060093 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Scholarship within green criminology focusing on crimes and harms against nonhuman animals has been increasing. Little attention, however, has been directed at the gendered aspects of these crimes. For example, why is it that the great majority of offenders involved in wildlife trade [...] Read more.
Scholarship within green criminology focusing on crimes and harms against nonhuman animals has been increasing. Little attention, however, has been directed at the gendered aspects of these crimes. For example, why is it that the great majority of offenders involved in wildlife trade and the illegal killing of endangered predators are male? The aim of this article is to fill the gap in the literature, relying on confiscation reports from Norwegian Customs of nonhuman animals—most of whom are listed in CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora)—as well as an analysis of verdicts in cases in Norwegian courts of “theriocides” (animal murders) of large predators. This article will assess the number of men and women involved in these crimes and harms, and will present some trends of theriociders. This article will employ ecofeminist and masculinities theories to better understand the gendered dynamics involved in wildlife trafficking and the theriocides of large carnivores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Criminology)
Open AccessArticle
Transmedia Practices and Collaborative Strategies in Informal Learning of Adolescents
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060092 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Transmedia literacy is the evolution from traditional media literacy to informal learning and participatory cultures. It analyzes the media literacy processes of young people through communities of practice in participatory contexts and through the use of digital discourses that enable the creation of [...] Read more.
Transmedia literacy is the evolution from traditional media literacy to informal learning and participatory cultures. It analyzes the media literacy processes of young people through communities of practice in participatory contexts and through the use of digital discourses that enable the creation of transmedia universes. The present study is approached from a mixed research method, whose main objective is the analysis of adolescents’ digital habits through several data-collecting tools: A survey, participative workshops, in-depth interviews, a media diary, and online observation. From that background information, the study subject has focused on Spain, and it is framed within the “Transliteracy: Transmedia skills and informal learning strategies” project, funded by Spain’s ministry of Economy, Industry, and Competitivity. The studio is based on a sample of 237 adolescents, from 12 to 14 years old, all intensive users of digital technologies. Interesting results were obtained concerning different transmedia practices that are frequent in adolescents and the informal learning collaborative strategies they currently use. This research work concludes that the use of the Internet, although occasionally lacking adequate safety measures, increases self-sufficiency in adolescents’ informal learning. They take control of their own learning, thus enhancing self-motivation and increasing the acquisition of transmedia competences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Open AccessArticle
The Dispossessed of Necropolitics on the San Diego-Tijuana Border
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060091 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 794
Abstract
This article presents results of a first-hand investigation that took a year of ethnographic work (methods of observation and interviews) during 2016–2017, with the post-structural theoretical framework of Gilles Deleuze, on the United States–Mexico border, in the San Diego-Tijuana corridor. The Center for [...] Read more.
This article presents results of a first-hand investigation that took a year of ethnographic work (methods of observation and interviews) during 2016–2017, with the post-structural theoretical framework of Gilles Deleuze, on the United States–Mexico border, in the San Diego-Tijuana corridor. The Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies of the University of California San Diego, PREVENCASA A. C., and Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosi supported this research. In this research, statistical data, observations, and synthesis of in-depth interviews were utilized about those defined as the ‘dispossessed’: users of hard drugs, and/or in homelessness conditions of discrimination in a highly contrasting border such as that of the United States and Mexico. Among the main results are the relations between mental and embodiment limits, necropolitics and territory, as well as the approach of post-structural political discourses about the body and mind that allow us to understand the subjectivities in question, proposing two types of homelessness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Open AccessArticle
The Maturity of Humanitarian Logistics against Recurrent Crises
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060090 - 27 May 2020
Viewed by 661
Abstract
This paper provides a framework to analyze the maturity of humanitarian logistics systems to face crisis situations related to recurrent events, and thus to identify the main areas of action and the community needs in terms of crisis logistics planning. First, the main [...] Read more.
This paper provides a framework to analyze the maturity of humanitarian logistics systems to face crisis situations related to recurrent events, and thus to identify the main areas of action and the community needs in terms of crisis logistics planning. First, the main notions of humanitarian logistics systems planning, and the theoretical contribution of maturity models are presented. Second, a maturity model for humanitarian logistics systems is proposed and the main categories of elements defining maturity extracted from literature. Then, the methodology to define the main elements of the maturity model via evidence is presented. This methodology combines a literature overview, a documentary analysis, and the development of three case studies, two located in Colombia and one in Peru. The main elements that characterize capability maturity model in humanitarian logistics systems facing recurrent crises are identified, from which the administration of donations, design of a distribution network, and the choice of suppliers are highlighted. The practical implications of the framework are proposed to allow its use to anticipate humanitarian logistics system for future crises. The framework allowed a first analysis guide and will be further extended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Low-Openness, Low-Transparency Procedures in Academic Hiring Disadvantage Women?
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(6), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060089 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Research has shown that low openness and low transparency in the process of recruitment of new (associate) professors put women at a systematic disadvantage. Examples include professorships awarded by direct invitation (as opposed to job calls); contexts where nominally open job calls routinely [...] Read more.
Research has shown that low openness and low transparency in the process of recruitment of new (associate) professors put women at a systematic disadvantage. Examples include professorships awarded by direct invitation (as opposed to job calls); contexts where nominally open job calls routinely get only one applicant; and procedural rules that allow the filtering out of qualified applicants without sharing the grounds of the decision with the candidates. We investigated one decade (2007–2017) of hiring of new (associate) professors in one Faculty at the largest university in Norway, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (n = 79). The Faculty is a highly gender-equal setting, in that the share of women among associate professors has been >40% for over a decade. We found (1) a high share (about 40%) of women among applicants, maintained among winners; (2) a very sporadic use of direct invitations (two in a decade) and no sign that their use advantages men; (3) no nominally ‘open’ job calls with only one applicant; (4) no disadvantage for women when the pool of applicants is small; (5) no systematic filtering out of women when low-transparency internal formal preselection procedures are used because of organizational contingencies (e.g., a high number of applicants). We found an overall high degree of openness in the selection procedure when compared to other Scandinavian and Western European studies. Contrary to our expectations (based on the relevant literature), we found no link between low openness in the selection process and gender inequality in the outcome. The latter finding must be interpreted in context. We conclude that the overall good gender balance locally is an antidote to the potential biasing effect of low-openness and low-transparency procedures, so long as such procedures are used only exceptionally, and their use is clearly tied with organizational contingencies. At the same time, we found no indication that low-openness and low-transparency procedures systematically advantage women. Full article
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