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Utilization of Corn Cob Ash as Fine Aggregate and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Cementitious Material in Concrete

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak, Malaysia
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The Key Laboratory of Urban Security and Disaster Engineering of Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingleyuan, Beijing 100124, China
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Centre for Future Materials (CFM), School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
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Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, Ota 112233, Nigeria
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Civil Engineering Department, University of Garmian, Kalar 46021, Iraq
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Department of Civil Engineering, Harran University, Sanlıurfa 63510, Turkey
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Universidad Ricardo Palma, Lima 1801, Peru
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdelhafid Khelidj
Buildings 2021, 11(9), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090422
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
Cementitious and recycled materials that have the potential to improve various properties of concrete have attracted the attention of many researchers recently. Different types of cementitious and recycled materials seem to possess certain unique properties to change cement concrete. This experimental study aims to investigate the impact of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and corn cob ash (CCA) as a partial replacement material for Portland cement (PC) and fine aggregate (FA), respectively, on fresh and hardened concrete properties, as well as the embodied carbon of concrete. The concrete mix was blended with 5–20% of GGBFS and 10–40% of corn cob ash, both individually and combined. A total of 300 concrete specimens were made to achieve the targeted strength of 25 MPa at a 0.50 water/cement ratio and cured at 28 days. It is observed that the workability of fresh concrete is lowered as the dosages of GGBFS and CCA increase in the mixture. Moreover, the compressive and split tensile strengths are augmented by 10.94% and 9.15%, respectively, at 10% of GGBFS by the weight of PC at 28 days. Similarly, the compressive and split tensile strengths are augmented by 11.62% and 10.56%, respectively, at 30% of CCA by the weight of FA at 28 days. Moreover, the combined use of 10% of GGBFS as a cementitious ingredient along with 30% of fine aggregate replaced with CCA in concrete provides the highest compressive and splitting tensile strength, with 16.98% and 13.38% at 28 days, respectively. Furthermore, the density and water absorption of concrete were reduced with increasing dosages of GGBFS and FA in concrete at 28 days. In addition, the embodied carbon and energy were also reduced as the replacement content of GGBFS along with CCA increased in concrete. It is concluded that 10% of GGBFS and 30% of CCA are the optimum percentages for structural applications to reduce the use of cement as well as the cost of the project. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete; GGBFS; CCA; replacement; fresh and hardened concrete; reduce embodied carbon concrete; GGBFS; CCA; replacement; fresh and hardened concrete; reduce embodied carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bheel, N.; Ali, M.O.A.; Liu, Y.; Tafsirojjaman, T.; Awoyera, P.; Sor, N.H.; Bendezu Romero, L.M. Utilization of Corn Cob Ash as Fine Aggregate and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Cementitious Material in Concrete. Buildings 2021, 11, 422. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090422

AMA Style

Bheel N, Ali MOA, Liu Y, Tafsirojjaman T, Awoyera P, Sor NH, Bendezu Romero LM. Utilization of Corn Cob Ash as Fine Aggregate and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Cementitious Material in Concrete. Buildings. 2021; 11(9):422. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090422

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bheel, Naraindas, Montasir O.A. Ali, Yue Liu, T. Tafsirojjaman, Paul Awoyera, Nadhim H. Sor, and Lenin M. Bendezu Romero. 2021. "Utilization of Corn Cob Ash as Fine Aggregate and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Cementitious Material in Concrete" Buildings 11, no. 9: 422. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090422

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