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Metals 2019, 9(3), 372;

Effects of Cerium on Weld Solidification Crack Sensitivity of 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel

1,2 and 1,*
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
Central Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201900, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Welded Joints)
PDF [3385 KB, uploaded 22 March 2019]


The addition of rare earth element Ce in ferritic stainless steel can improve the high temperature performance to meet the service requirements of automobile exhaust systems at high temperatures. Automobile exhaust systems are generally applied as welded pipes, so it is necessary to study the effect of Ce on the weldability of ferritic stainless steel. In this study, the Trans-varestraint test method was used to test the solidification crack sensitivities of 441 and 441Ce ferritic stainless steel. The 441Ce steel, which has added Ce, showed poor resistance to weld solidification cracking. Using Thermo-Calc software, Ce was observed to expand the solidification temperature range of 441 ferritic stainless steel, increase the time for solid–liquid coexistence during solidification, and increase the sensitivity of solidification cracking. Further, from scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, the addition of Ce was found to reduce high temperature precipitation (Ti,Nb)(C,N), reduce or even eliminate the “pinning” effect during solidification, and increase solidification crack sensitivity of 441 ferritic stainless steel. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferritic stainless steel; cerium; solidification crack; Trans-varestraint test ferritic stainless steel; cerium; solidification crack; Trans-varestraint test

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Zhu, S.; Yan, B. Effects of Cerium on Weld Solidification Crack Sensitivity of 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel. Metals 2019, 9, 372.

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