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Open AccessArticle

Creep Failure of Reformer Tubes in a Petrochemical Plant

1
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
2
Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101026
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Mechanisms in Alloys)
This paper investigates a failure in HP-Mod radiant tubes in a petrochemical plant. Tubes fail after 90,000 h of working at 950 °C. Observed failure is in the form of excessive bulging and longitudinal cracking in reformer tubes. Cracks are also largely branched. The microstructure of service-exposed tubes was evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze and characterize different phases in the microstructure. The results of this study showed that carbides are coarsened at both the inner and the outer surface due to the long exposure to a carburizing environment. Metallography examinations also revealed that there are many creep voids that are nucleated on carbide phases and scattered in between dendrites. Cracks appeared to form as a result of creep void coalescence. Failure is therefore attributed to creep due to a long exposure to a high temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: reformer tubes; HP-Mod; failure analysis; creep reformer tubes; HP-Mod; failure analysis; creep
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahrami, A.; Taheri, P. Creep Failure of Reformer Tubes in a Petrochemical Plant. Metals 2019, 9, 1026.

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