Next Article in Journal
Gradients of Strain to Increase Strength and Ductility of Magnesium Alloys
Next Article in Special Issue
An Introduction to Wear Degradation Mechanisms of Surface-Protected Metallic Components
Previous Article in Journal
A CPS-Based Simulation Platform for Long Production Factories
Previous Article in Special Issue
Prediction of Bake Hardening Behavior of Selected Advanced High Strength Automotive Steels and Hailstone Failure Discussion
Open AccessArticle

Creep Failure of Reformer Tubes in a Petrochemical Plant

Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1026;
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Mechanisms in Alloys)
This paper investigates a failure in HP-Mod radiant tubes in a petrochemical plant. Tubes fail after 90,000 h of working at 950 °C. Observed failure is in the form of excessive bulging and longitudinal cracking in reformer tubes. Cracks are also largely branched. The microstructure of service-exposed tubes was evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze and characterize different phases in the microstructure. The results of this study showed that carbides are coarsened at both the inner and the outer surface due to the long exposure to a carburizing environment. Metallography examinations also revealed that there are many creep voids that are nucleated on carbide phases and scattered in between dendrites. Cracks appeared to form as a result of creep void coalescence. Failure is therefore attributed to creep due to a long exposure to a high temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: reformer tubes; HP-Mod; failure analysis; creep reformer tubes; HP-Mod; failure analysis; creep
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bahrami, A.; Taheri, P. Creep Failure of Reformer Tubes in a Petrochemical Plant. Metals 2019, 9, 1026.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop