Next Article in Journal
Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanism in Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels
Next Article in Special Issue
Hydrometallurgical Process for Selective Metals Recovery from Waste-Printed Circuit Boards
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Solidification Cooling Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Mg-Zn-Y Alloy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Thermodynamic Considerations for a Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Indium and Silver from a Jarosite Residue
Open AccessArticle

The Scrap Collection per Industry Sector and the Circulation Times of Steel in the U.S. between 1900 and 2016, Calculated Based on the Volume Correlation Model

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue Wean Hall 3325, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050338
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
On the basis of the Volume Correlation Model (VCM) as well as data on steel consumption and scrap collection per industry sector (construction, automotive, industrial goods, and consumer goods), it was possible to estimate service lifetimes of steel in the United States between 1900 and 2016. Input data on scrap collection per industry sector was based on a scrap survey conducted by the World Steel Association for a static year in 2014 in the United States. The lifetimes of steel calculated with the VCM method were within the range of previously reported measured lifetimes of products and applications for all industry sectors. Scrapped (and apparent) lifetimes of steel compared with measured lifetimes were calculated to be as follows: a scrapped lifetime of 29 years for the construction sector (apparent lifetime: 52 years) compared with 44 years measured in 2014. Industrial goods: 16 (27) years compared with 19 years measured in 2010. Consumer goods: 12 (14) years compared with 13 years measured in 2014. Automotive sector: 14 (19) years compared with 17 years measured in 2011. Results show that the VCM can estimate reasonable values of scrap collection and availability per industry sector over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: lifetime of steel; steel scrap; circulation; industry sector; dynamic material flow model; recycling rate; material flow analysis lifetime of steel; steel scrap; circulation; industry sector; dynamic material flow model; recycling rate; material flow analysis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gauffin, A.; Pistorius, P.C. The Scrap Collection per Industry Sector and the Circulation Times of Steel in the U.S. between 1900 and 2016, Calculated Based on the Volume Correlation Model. Metals 2018, 8, 338.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop