Sand casting of lead sheet is a traditional manufacturing process used up to the present due to the special features of sand cast sheet such as their attractive sheen. Similarly to any casting process, sand casting of lead sheet suffers from the presence of surface defects. In this study, a surface defect type, hereby referred to as ‘grooves’, has been investigated. The focus has been laid on the identification of the main factors affecting defect formation in this process. Based on a set of screening experiments performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as well as the existing literature, a number of factors affecting the formation of such defects was identified and their corresponding significance was estimated using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique. The obtained results suggest that the most significant factor affecting defect formation in sand casting of lead sheet is the composition of the moulding mixture. Defect formation was also proven to be dependent on the sand grain fineness, the quality of the melt and some of the interactions between the aforementioned process parameters. Finally, an optimal set of process parameters leading to the minimisation of surface defects was identified.
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