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Societies, Volume 12, Issue 6 (December 2022) – 48 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This is a referential article about the prospects around the ongoing West-Basque-American e-diaspora in California, Nevada, and Idaho. It challenges the existing interpretation so far made in the Basque Studies eminently in humanities and relying on a conventional approach by advocating a transdisciplinary academic agenda and policy roadmap to support Basque communities in their locations, beyond institutional agreements and scattered promotional actions. Furthermore, the article suggests completing Basque Studies Programs with a transdisciplinary social sciences roadmap through four developmental transitions: (i) socioeconomics (local and regional development), (ii) sociopolitics (fiscal decentralization and e-democracy), (iii) diaspora and migration studies, and (iv) digitalisation/datafication (e-citizens as digital natives in the metaverse). View this paper
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Article
Individual Attitudes towards Immigration in Turkey: Evidence from the European Social Survey
Societies 2022, 12(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060194 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 581
Abstract
One of the reasons why people hold anti-immigration attitudes is the fear that immigrants “rob jobs” of natives and decrease wages. However, academic literature finds that this is not the case. Nevertheless, in various countries, people still tend to oppose immigration. Opposition to [...] Read more.
One of the reasons why people hold anti-immigration attitudes is the fear that immigrants “rob jobs” of natives and decrease wages. However, academic literature finds that this is not the case. Nevertheless, in various countries, people still tend to oppose immigration. Opposition to immigration was particularly high in Turkey in the early 2000s, where almost half of the respondents to the Turkish part of the European Social Survey reported they would prefer to allow no immigrants into Turkey. This is although immigration to Turkey is very low. Turkey is becoming an important destination country as conflicts in neighboring countries force many people to flee. Therefore, understanding the opposition to immigration in Turkey is crucial for managing age immigration flows efficiently. For this purpose, we investigate the determinants of attitudes towards immigration in Turkey using the European Social Survey and Turkish population census data. The findings of the ordered probit model reveal that Turkish people tend to hold more negative attitudes towards immigration where the regional share of immigrants is higher. The little chance of contact with immigrants in Turkey through a lower share of immigrants compared to other European countries seems to influence natives’ pro-immigrant attitudes negatively. Full article
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Article
Digitalization of Educational Organizations: Evaluation and Improvement Based on DigCompOrg Model
Societies 2022, 12(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060193 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The digitalization of educational organizations is a political and social priority at European level and the model which is the basis for the analysis is DigCompOrg as part of the European Framework of Competences. This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal evaluative [...] Read more.
The digitalization of educational organizations is a political and social priority at European level and the model which is the basis for the analysis is DigCompOrg as part of the European Framework of Competences. This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal evaluative research (from 2018 until 2022) around the digitalization process of a compulsory secondary education center. We have applied a mixed method and an evaluative research design based on the use of questionnaires, focus groups and a research diary. This article is focused on data from the last evaluation (2021–2022) where the participants are 26 members of the management team, 46 teachers and 374 students. Our results show that progress has been made in the digitalization process, especially in some areas such as leadership, infrastructure/equipment and pedagogy/support/resources, which have obtained high scores. On the other hand, the data also show other areas where there is more scope for improvement, such as collaboration, digital networks and also innovative assessment practices. This research can be valuable as an example of a good practice around the digitalization of institutions of formal education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Transformation: Social and Educational Perspective)
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Article
Leadership Styles, Organizational Climate, and School Climate Openness from the Perspective of Slovak Vocational School Teachers
Societies 2022, 12(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060192 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The aim of the proposed study is to present the partial results of a research study on the organizational climate in vocational schools as perceived by teachers. Special attention is paid to the applied leadership style by school leaders, and the existence of [...] Read more.
The aim of the proposed study is to present the partial results of a research study on the organizational climate in vocational schools as perceived by teachers. Special attention is paid to the applied leadership style by school leaders, and the existence of associations between school leaders’ and teachers’ behaviour in schools. Organizational climate was measured by the standardized OCDQ-RS adapted to the conditions of the Slovak educational environment on the sample of 474 vocational schoolteachers. The scale measures five dimensions: Supportive principal behaviour; Directive principal behaviour; Engaged teacher behaviour; Frustrated teacher behaviour; and Intimate teacher behaviour, allowing for calculation of the Index of school climate openness, which is an indicator of the quality of the organizational climate. The obtained results confirmed the existence of associations between teacher and principal behaviour and school climate openness. It can be assumed that the applied leadership style in an institution can affect the quality of interpersonal relationships and teacher behaviour both in positive and negative directions. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to building favourable organizational climate in schools, which represents a challenge for school leaders and educational systems that should provide school leaders with sufficient learning opportunities in the field of school leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educational Leadership and Organizational Culture in Education)
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Article
An Image-Based Approach to Measuring Human Values
Societies 2022, 12(6), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060191 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
This study aims to explore the potential of using a novel image-based approach to measuring individuals’ human values. This could result in higher-quality measurements by circumventing the drawbacks of the text-based methods prone to social biases affecting the truthful interpretation of complex verbal [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the potential of using a novel image-based approach to measuring individuals’ human values. This could result in higher-quality measurements by circumventing the drawbacks of the text-based methods prone to social biases affecting the truthful interpretation of complex verbal constructions and a low respondent engagement due to lengthy interviews. A review of the academic literature on image-based research into human values is performed and validated by our own empirical research on a representative sample of the Latvian population to compare the results of our image-based approach with the text-based approach. Our findings suggest that currently, most image-based methodologies for measuring the values and motivations of individuals lack structure and verified application. There is no precise and widely accepted methodology. However, a well-developed image-based research methodology has the potential to fill in this gap. The results confirm that an individual’s values can be identified and structured into a personal hierarchy by applying both text-based methods (asking respondents to evaluate written statements) and image-based methods (evaluation of selected images representing specific values). Our study employs a new image-based approach that seems to offer a more straightforward and more precise way of measuring values compared to the text-based approach. Full article
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Article
Human Resource Professionals’ Responses to Workplace Bullying
Societies 2022, 12(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060190 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Workplace bullying manifests in significant costs to individuals and organisations. The obligation to resolve such cases largely falls on Human Resource Professionals (HRPs). Little is known, however, about the antecedents to HRPs’ helping behaviour in these scenarios. Using the attribution–emotion model of stigmatisation, [...] Read more.
Workplace bullying manifests in significant costs to individuals and organisations. The obligation to resolve such cases largely falls on Human Resource Professionals (HRPs). Little is known, however, about the antecedents to HRPs’ helping behaviour in these scenarios. Using the attribution–emotion model of stigmatisation, this study explored how HRPs are influenced in their response to workplace bullying. Australian HRPs (n = 84) were assigned to one of four experimental vignette scenarios, differing in target (approach/avoidance coping) and perpetrator (effort vs. non-effortful response) behaviour. The results revealed that targets who fail to act to resolve situations of bullying were regarded as more responsible and less likely to receive help, but HRPs were more sympathetic and inclined to help non-responsive perpetrators when the targets also avoided the situation. The findings indicate two key areas for training and development that could improve HRPs evaluations and management of workplace bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion, Workplace Bullying and Workplace Wellness)
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Article
Racial and Ethnic Inequalities, Health Disparities and Racism in Times of COVID-19 Pandemic Populism in the EU: Unveiling Anti-Migrant Attitudes, Precarious Living Conditions and Barriers to Integration in Greece
Societies 2022, 12(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060189 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact particularly on the most vulnerable populations, including immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in the EU. The article depicts the results of the comparative research project “Local Alliance for Integration (LION/GSRI/University of West Attica/81018): Migrant and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact particularly on the most vulnerable populations, including immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in the EU. The article depicts the results of the comparative research project “Local Alliance for Integration (LION/GSRI/University of West Attica/81018): Migrant and Refugee integration into local societies in times of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain and Greece” implementing a qualitative methodology. This article analyses via 32 in-depth interviews the experiences of immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Greece, the increased barriers towards integration due to racial and ethnic inequalities, precarity and health disparities during this period which function as a means of perpetuating exclusion in five sectors: (a) formal employment, (b) healthcare, (c) formal education and language training, (d) housing and social care/protection, and (e) intercultural coexistence as well as the new rise of a hostile rhetoric and anti-migrant attitudes under a COVID-19 pandemic populism. The unravelling of the narratives revealed perceptions and practices of inequality and uncertainty as well as of hope. The socioeconomic impact of the pandemic on immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees, similarities and differences that occurred and evidence of the ongoing obstacles they encountered during the pandemic are presented. Policy and practice implications include the implementation of prevention measures by the institutions that are tasked with the responsibility to remove hindrances, address unequal treatment, racial/ethnic and social inequalities and raise awareness on multiple ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified vulnerability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Migration and the Rise of Populism)
Concept Paper
House of Golden Records: Portugal’s Independent Record Stores (1998–2020)
Societies 2022, 12(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060188 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 646
Abstract
In this article, we explore the importance of Portuguese independent record stores by highlighting their role as catalysts of scenes and sociabilities, specifically in the major cities of Lisbon and Porto. We examine how these stores can be understood not only as spaces [...] Read more.
In this article, we explore the importance of Portuguese independent record stores by highlighting their role as catalysts of scenes and sociabilities, specifically in the major cities of Lisbon and Porto. We examine how these stores can be understood not only as spaces of consumption, but also as places where rituals are enacted and communities of taste are built. We focus on several levels of analysis: the emergence of a new economic rationale based on curation and collecting, the vinyl revival and the stores’ complex relationship with the technological and digital revolution. The methodology used is ethnographic analysis, with observations carried out in ten stores, complemented by interviews with owners and customers. We demonstrate that record stores began to offer not only objects for purchase, but experiences associated with cultural objects and new cultural practices based on the valorization of the object and craftsmanship, as well as the phenomenon of curation in the cultural world. We then analyse independent record stores as spaces of resistance against the dematerialization of music. The emergence of a new aspirational economy is explored, based on curation and on being in the present, rebuffing the Veblenian rationale of ostentation. In music scenes, curation demands legitimacy, so in the independent record stores studied, curation strategies are developed on three levels: spatial, individual and local. In the third section, we examine independent record stores as spaces of rituals because they combine the existence of a totem, the relevance of a space loaded with symbolic density and the presence of social actors who carry out the rituals in this symbolic space—that is, social actors with subcultural capital in the music scene(s). In the last section, we dissect the relationship between independent record stores and their local context, exploring issues of local curation, in particular, the legitimacy associated with belonging to a specific place. Full article
Article
The Post-COVID-19 Era, Fourth Industrial Revolution, and New Globalization: Restructured Labor Relations and Organizational Adaptation
Societies 2022, 12(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060187 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 679
Abstract
This paper explores the directions of adaptation for socioeconomic organizations in the current global crisis and restructuring. We carry out an integrative and critical review, presenting the main questions—and possible directions of response—concerning how the post-COVID-19 era, the fourth industrial revolution, and new [...] Read more.
This paper explores the directions of adaptation for socioeconomic organizations in the current global crisis and restructuring. We carry out an integrative and critical review, presenting the main questions—and possible directions of response—concerning how the post-COVID-19 era, the fourth industrial revolution, and new globalization seem to affect contemporary labor relations. We focus on the different levels of their manifestation (macro, meso, and micro levels), emphasizing worsening inequality trends in the work environment and the resulting organizational readaptation that seems to be required nowadays. The restructured labor markets can benefit from the diffusion of institutional innovations based on integrated social partnership schemes at the macro–meso–micro levels. We emphasize organizational adaptation at the microlevel, as the innovation and change management mechanisms it enables, presupposes, and harnesses are imperative for exiting any crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Transformation and the Labour Market Inequalities)
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Article
Staff Stress and Interpersonal Conflict in Secondary Schools—Implications for School Leadership
Societies 2022, 12(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060186 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 877
Abstract
The importance of school leadership and workplace stress is a recurring theme in education-based research. The literature reports that workplace stress in teaching is a difficult matter to resolve, with mixed outcomes from interventions. The aim of this initial scoping study was to [...] Read more.
The importance of school leadership and workplace stress is a recurring theme in education-based research. The literature reports that workplace stress in teaching is a difficult matter to resolve, with mixed outcomes from interventions. The aim of this initial scoping study was to report on the experiences of school leaders with interpersonal conflict (IPC), a known cause of this workplace stress. Accordingly, a sample of twelve school leaders working in Irish post primary schools were recruited to participate in this study using semi-structured interviews. All twelve participants reported experiencing workplace stress and linked other people as a source of this stress. Nine out of twelve had experienced IPC as a school leader. School leaders also noted a fear of reporting workplace stress. Half of the participants reported becoming ill from workplace stress and had taken time off from work. Participants also reported ‘balkanisation’ of like-minded cliques that tried to exert control over other groups. None of the participants expressed confidence in organisational strategies to resolve workplace stress or IPC. This study demonstrates that resolutions for IPC were scant. Further research is needed to conceptualise this phenomenon in the school environment and to support school leaders to effectively manage IPC as a cause of workplace stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educational Leadership and Organizational Culture in Education)
Review
Using the Capability Approach to Review the National Legislative Frameworks for Support Services for Persons with Disabilities in Four Countries in Asia
Societies 2022, 12(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060185 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 427
Abstract
Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (UN CRPD) requires countries to harmonise their legislative frameworks with it. This paper investigates the national legislative frameworks of four Asian countries to see the extent to which they provide [...] Read more.
Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (UN CRPD) requires countries to harmonise their legislative frameworks with it. This paper investigates the national legislative frameworks of four Asian countries to see the extent to which they provide support services in accordance with Article 19 of the UN CRPD. The UN CRPD requires persons with disabilities to have access to and choice and control over support services. To analyse the policy alignment with the UN CRPD, an analytical framework based on the Capability Approach (CA) was developed. The results show that most countries address support services, including assistive devices, only from the perspective of a social security measure for persons with disabilities living in poverty, failing to uphold the rights of those not meeting those eligibility criteria. However, while support services are inseparably linked to social security, they also are a right for persons with disabilities. Therefore, a paradigm shift is required in the approach of support services and the distributive systems of countries, from one that addresses persons with disabilities as those requiring care considered a burden, to one that considers them rights holders with equal opportunities, for which, support services are a pre-requisite. Full article
Article
Towards Inclusive Higher Education: A Multivariate Analysis of Social and Gender Inequalities
Societies 2022, 12(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060184 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Universities are a key element in preventing any form of discrimination. Therefore, the United Nations 2030 Agenda recognizes their role through goal 4 regarding the quality of education. The 2030 agenda also includes goals 5 and 10, regarding gender equity and reducing inequalities [...] Read more.
Universities are a key element in preventing any form of discrimination. Therefore, the United Nations 2030 Agenda recognizes their role through goal 4 regarding the quality of education. The 2030 agenda also includes goals 5 and 10, regarding gender equity and reducing inequalities as cross-cutting elements to boost social inclusion. The purpose of this research is to carry out a multivariate and dynamic analysis of the most outstanding universities in the global list of the THE Impact Rankings, which is the only tool that classifies these institutions in terms of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to study how they are positioned in the indicators related to inequality. We also examine its evolution in the last three years and the relationship between goals 4, 5, and 10. The results show that less than half of the leading universities in sustainability carry out an active social inclusion policy. Additionally, most of them underwent significant changes in their trajectories to approach the indicator of gender equity. The research suggests there is still a long way to go to achieve social justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Social Class Issue in Academic Field)
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Review
Children and Drug Trafficking in Brazil: Can International Humanitarian Law Provide Protections for Children Involved in Drug Trafficking?
Societies 2022, 12(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060183 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Brazil has seen a rise in children in narco-trafficking due to increased conflicts between factions and local law enforcement. Mainstream media and scholars tend to frame actions of these factions as organized crime, ignoring the generalized violence the communities and children experience. The [...] Read more.
Brazil has seen a rise in children in narco-trafficking due to increased conflicts between factions and local law enforcement. Mainstream media and scholars tend to frame actions of these factions as organized crime, ignoring the generalized violence the communities and children experience. The aim of this study is to conduct a scoping review to consider whether or not Brazilian children involved in drug trafficking can be classified as child soldiers. Drawing from the international definition of Armed Conflict in Article 3 of the Geneva Convention of 1949 and Article 1 of the Additional Protocol II, and comparing situations of realities faced by Brazilian children involved in narco-trafficking, we argue that their reality is analogous to that of child soldiers, as defined by the Paris Principles on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict 2007; thus, going beyond the organized crime definition. In characterizing them as child soldiers, we argue for improving the children’s ability to be reintegrated into society, with the collective help of the international community. Full article
Article
The Assistive Technology Passport: A Resource for Enhancing Capabilities as a Result of Better Access to Assistive Technology
Societies 2022, 12(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060182 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
The value of Assistive Technology in enabling active and equal participation in political, social, economic, and cultural life of people with disabilities, people ageing, and people with chronic conditions is broadly accepted. However, most of the global population who need assistive technology (AT) [...] Read more.
The value of Assistive Technology in enabling active and equal participation in political, social, economic, and cultural life of people with disabilities, people ageing, and people with chronic conditions is broadly accepted. However, most of the global population who need assistive technology (AT) lack access to it, hence the call for international efforts to improve access to AT. Drawing from the capability approach (CA) developed by Amartya Sen and Martha C. Nussbaum, we explore factors that may hinder or facilitate access to AT. We examine the idea of an AT Passport as an innovative user-centered approach for improving access to AT. We used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to explore service users’ lived experiences of access to AT and their understanding of the AT Passport concept. We identified the core values of human diversity, equity, access to opportunity, and individual freedom to choose a life of significance to them. Access to AT is central to expanding these capabilities subject to conducive personal and social-contextual issues. The AT Passport could be developed as a capability-enhancing resource by facilitating access to AT, harnessing the diversity of people’s personal, social, and environmental factors to enrich peoples’ capability sets. Further research is required to identify core AT Passport functionalities, usability, and acceptability features. Full article
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Concept Paper
Family and Youth Development: Some Concepts and Findings Linked to The Ecocultural and Acculturation Models
Societies 2022, 12(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060181 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Much research on migrants has focused on single individuals; however, the large-scale movement of people from one society to another often includes families made up of parents, their children and other relatives. Over time, these families and their members settle into their new [...] Read more.
Much research on migrants has focused on single individuals; however, the large-scale movement of people from one society to another often includes families made up of parents, their children and other relatives. Over time, these families and their members settle into their new society; they experience the process of acculturation and eventually adapt to their new circumstances. The processes of acculturation and adaptation are highly variable across cultural groups, societies of settlement, families and individuals. Sometimes this process is challenging, and may engender disagreements and conflicts among members of a family about how to acculturate. Variations in these patterns allow for the examination of which acculturation experiences and strategies lead to better adaptations. This paper reviews some of the core concepts and frameworks for examining them, and presents some findings on how families and youth acculturate and adapt. It concludes with some suggestions for how to acculturate using the integration strategy to improve family and individual adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Longitudinal Studies on Migrants’ Families: From an Identity View)
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Article
‘You Know Them All’—Trust, Cooperation, and Cultural Volunteering in Rural Areas in Germany
Societies 2022, 12(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060180 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
(1) Background: Rural areas are characterised by a higher number of volunteers compared to urban centres in Germany. In this context, cultural and arts education is one of the largest voluntary sectors. However, an increasing decline in (cultural) volunteering can be observed. To [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Rural areas are characterised by a higher number of volunteers compared to urban centres in Germany. In this context, cultural and arts education is one of the largest voluntary sectors. However, an increasing decline in (cultural) volunteering can be observed. To counteract the decrease, it is important to strengthen regional cooperation and social networks, which are based on trust. The connection between trust, volunteering, and social networks has already been examined, but we still do not fully understand the emergence of trust in the link of cultural education cooperation and networks in rural areas. (2) Methods: A total of 34 semi-structured interviews in combination with egocentric network maps were conducted in four rural regions. The interview data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. (3) Results: Four dimensions of trust-building were identified: 1. presence and spatial proximity, 2. multiplexity, 3. third party, and 4. community spirit. Full article
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Article
Is It All about a Science-Informed Decision? A Quantitative Approach to Three Dimensions of Justice and Their Relation in the Nuclear Waste Repository Siting Process in Germany
Societies 2022, 12(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060179 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Nuclear waste management is a contested challenge that lasts for decades. Especially in Germany, the history of the usage of nuclear energy is conflictive and notions of justice are therefore omnipresent in the ongoing site selection process for a nuclear waste repository. Against [...] Read more.
Nuclear waste management is a contested challenge that lasts for decades. Especially in Germany, the history of the usage of nuclear energy is conflictive and notions of justice are therefore omnipresent in the ongoing site selection process for a nuclear waste repository. Against the background of injustices caused by the deployment of nuclear energy, such as the obligation for current generations to deal with nuclear waste, questions of how to justly deal with nuclear waste and to find a just repository site arise. By conducting a survey among people that participate in the site selection process as well as people living in or representing an area that is still considered suitable, the assessment of different aspects of justice was evaluated. The role of a science-informed site decision without any political bias is considered highly important for a just site selection. Distributional aspects, such as notions of utilitarianism, retribution, or the exemption of environmentally burdened regions are generally not approved but more detailed questions have shown that such notions cannot be dismissed at this early stage of the site selection process. The difference for general agreement can also be observed for intergenerational recognition, as the recognition of future generations is regarded as necessary, but concrete implications (retrievability or enclosure) are assessed ambiguously. Although some factors of justice are assessed more importantly than others, the analysis has shown that the interrelations between the different dimensions of justice are manifold and the argument that one dimension can be substituted for another one is too reductive. Full article
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Editorial
Cultural Competence in Healthcare and Healthcare Education
Societies 2022, 12(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060178 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Cultural competence in healthcare has been defined in many ways; however, it generally refers to knowledge of social and cultural factors that influence illness and related behaviour, and actions taken to provide the best of quality care considering each patient’s background [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Competence in Healthcare and Healthcare Education)
Article
Analysis of the Links between Social Intelligence and Coping Strategies of Business Managers in Terms of Development of Their Potential
Societies 2022, 12(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060177 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The social as well as psychological development of individuals’ potential is influenced by many factors, including managerial competences such as social intelligence and ways of coping with stress. This paper presents the links between social intelligence and strategies for coping with demanding situations [...] Read more.
The social as well as psychological development of individuals’ potential is influenced by many factors, including managerial competences such as social intelligence and ways of coping with stress. This paper presents the links between social intelligence and strategies for coping with demanding situations by business managers, as well as gender differences in the perception of social intelligence and in the preference for coping strategies between male and female business managers. The research sample consisted of 149 business managers, of which 76 (51%) were male and 73 (49%) were female managers. The results were obtained through research based on two methodologies: MESI for the detection of social intelligence, and Brief COPE, designed to identify coping strategies. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the links between the social intelligence factors and coping strategies, as well as gender differences in the perception of social intelligence and coping strategies by male and female business managers, have been confirmed. Research into the relationship between these two aspects and its results could contribute to the elimination of undesirable factors influencing the work process and to the subsequent development of the psychological, social and work potential of business managers. Full article
Article
“Polish People Are Starting to Hate Polish People”—Uncovering Emergent Patterns of Electoral Hostility in Post-Communist Europe
Societies 2022, 12(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060176 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Like many societies, Poland seems to be increasingly split by the negative feelings many of its citizens feel towards one another because of the ways in which they vote. This phenomenon is known as electoral hostility. This paper sheds light on what it [...] Read more.
Like many societies, Poland seems to be increasingly split by the negative feelings many of its citizens feel towards one another because of the ways in which they vote. This phenomenon is known as electoral hostility. This paper sheds light on what it entails in political and psychological terms. A unique feature of this research is its methodological approach, combining family focus groups and individual interviews of up to 70 participants. This enables us to uncover critical insights into the perceptions and experiences of first-time voters and their families. It informs us of Poland’s fractious and emotional political atmosphere, but also on the way in which electoral hostility shapes lives in Poland. The findings highlight the importance of mirror perceptions (the perception that others’ hatred justifies our own) in shaping electoral hostility as an emotional sequence which makes many voters progressively see their emotions towards opposite voters deteriorate from misunderstanding to frustration, anger, disgust, and ultimately hatred. Finally, the analysis foregrounds the ways in which Polish voters adapt their behavior in accordance with their own preconceived notions of hostility. These preconceptions can manifest themselves via three possible routes: (1) avoidance, (2) aggression, and (3) a sense of doom, deterioration, and hopelessness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive or Exclusive Elections?: The Citizens Left Out of Democracy)
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Article
Gender Barriers in Academia: Perceptions of Inequality in Professional Development among Female Academics in the Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Spain
Societies 2022, 12(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060175 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Spanish universities have been implementing gender equality policies for over a decade. The research presented here aims to determine the barriers and challenges perceived by female academics in the Faculty of Education at the University of Alicante. The study used a seven-point Likert-type [...] Read more.
Spanish universities have been implementing gender equality policies for over a decade. The research presented here aims to determine the barriers and challenges perceived by female academics in the Faculty of Education at the University of Alicante. The study used a seven-point Likert-type scale survey consisting of 10 items, which were validated by specialists from different universities. One of the key findings was that often barriers have ceased to be seen as such and are understood instead as a normalized reality. Nevertheless, participants stress that women face greater barriers than men when it comes to reaching top-level positions; highlighting issues such as a lack of mentorship, delayed motherhood, experiencing sexist behavior and comments from male colleagues; and a lack of consensus around measures, such as reconciling work–life balance, as a means of largely eliminating the barriers they face in the university. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Social Class Issue in Academic Field)
Article
Food Insecurity Levels among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Societies 2022, 12(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060174 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Background: University students may be vulnerable to food insecurity (FI) due to limited financial resources, lower purchasing power, and increasing housing and food costs. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of FI and its associated factors among university students attending [...] Read more.
Background: University students may be vulnerable to food insecurity (FI) due to limited financial resources, lower purchasing power, and increasing housing and food costs. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of FI and its associated factors among university students attending a public Portuguese university. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed, and data were collected using a self-reported online questionnaire validated for the Portuguese population. The study population included students from all levels of study and the assessments were conducted during the winter semester (December 2021 to February 2022). Chi-square tests were used to determine the associations between FI and sociodemographic variables. Bivariate logistic regression was further used to assess factors associated with FI. Results: From the 284 participants, 17.3% of students were classified as food insecure, consisting of 14.1% with mild FI, 2.1% with moderate FI, and 1.1% with severe FI. FI was significantly associated with nationality (p = 0.028) and the number of unemployed household members (p = 0.001). In comparison to Portuguese students, students of other nationalities were 4.1 times more likely to be food insecure (OR = 4.089, 95% CI:1.057–15.821, p = 0.041). Students in households with a higher number of members (OR = 2.537, 95% CI:1.231–5.230, p = 0.012) and a higher number of unemployed members (OR = 3.192, 95% CI:1.681–6.059, p < 0.001) were also 2.5 and 3.1 times more likely, respectively, to be food insecure. Conclusions: This study provides an insight into the FI levels of university students in a Portuguese university. Further future studies are needed to use objective measures of food insecurity (availability, access, and utilization of food) and explore interventions addressing food insecurity in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lifestyle: The Relevance of Health Promotion for Society)
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Article
Adverse Childhood Experiences in Latinx Families: A Comparison between Intraracial and Interracial Families
Societies 2022, 12(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060173 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Racial/ethnic minorities are prone to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), posing a concern over social justice. However, the influence of interracial family structure has been rarely discussed. Considering that 26% of Hispanic individuals form interracial marriages in the U.S., we need to examine whether [...] Read more.
Racial/ethnic minorities are prone to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), posing a concern over social justice. However, the influence of interracial family structure has been rarely discussed. Considering that 26% of Hispanic individuals form interracial marriages in the U.S., we need to examine whether interracial family structure matters for ACEs disparities in Latinx families. We hypothesized that there were differences in ACEs between intraracial and interracial families in the Latinx population. A Latinx sample was collected from the Fragile Family and Child Well-being Studies with 1113 children of two Latinx parents and 397 children of interracial parents (e.g., White mother/Latinx father, Black mother/Latinx father, Latinx mother/White father, Latinx mother/Black father). Negative binomial models revealed a higher overall ACEs score among children in interracial families (β = 0.54, p < 0.05). Compared to children with two Latinx parents, children in each interracial family group were prone to higher risks of different ACEs. For example, children with Latinx mothers and Black fathers were more likely to experience parental separation (OR = 2.33), household material hardship (OR = 1.64), physical abuse (OR = 6.01), and psychological abuse (OR = 3.49) than children in intraracial Latinx families. Based on our findings, we call for culturally responsive ACEs prevention and intervention that consider the unique stressors of interracial families, to promote the health and well-being of racial/ethnic minorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Health and Well-Being: Determinative Effects of Environment)
Article
Decolonizing Sustainability through Indigenization in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions
Societies 2022, 12(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060172 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Sustainability discourse indicates a need to reconsider our approaches to social, economic, and environmental issues because, without deep transformation, global human survival is in jeopardy. At the same time, post-secondary education institutions in Canada are Indigenizing their settings but have rarely taken up [...] Read more.
Sustainability discourse indicates a need to reconsider our approaches to social, economic, and environmental issues because, without deep transformation, global human survival is in jeopardy. At the same time, post-secondary education institutions in Canada are Indigenizing their settings but have rarely taken up sustainability and Indigenization as related concepts. In this research, participants delivering Indigenous programming in ten colleges and universities across Canada contributed their insights on the relationships between Indigenous worldviews and sustainability in their territories and institutions. The five key findings that emerged from the study are: (1) Indigenous worldviews are based on a belief in the sacred, which orients Indigenous knowledges and responsibilities for sustaining life on Earth; (2) sustainability is expressed as a function of tradition linking Indigenous identity with culture, language, and environmental health; (3) entrenching Indigenous knowledges throughout institutions is to sustain cultural identity; (4) national and international standards supporting Indigenous self-determination are primary drivers for the inclusion of Indigenous knowledges and advance the underlying principle of sustainability; and (5) Indigenous holistic learning includes social, economic, and environmental aspects of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-racist Perspectives on Sustainabilities)
Concept Paper
The Possibilities and Limitations of Using Google Books Ngram Viewer in Research on Management Fashions
Societies 2022, 12(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060171 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Google Books Ngram Viewer (GNV) is an analytical tool that uses quantitative methods to analyze digitized text. This paper looks at the possibilities and limitations of using GNV in management fashion research, an area of management research that examines the lifecycle and evolution [...] Read more.
Google Books Ngram Viewer (GNV) is an analytical tool that uses quantitative methods to analyze digitized text. This paper looks at the possibilities and limitations of using GNV in management fashion research, an area of management research that examines the lifecycle and evolution of management concepts and ideas. GNV provides a historical big picture of the lifecycle and popularity of specific terms and phrases in books. It is argued that this tool could have a natural application in the study of management fashions, since books are a medium through which popular management concepts and ideas have traditionally been diffused. The paper provides several illustrative examples of how GNV can be applied to study management fashions and identifies the tool’s main possibilities and limitations. Although GNV has obvious advantages such as accessibility and user-friendliness, researchers should exercise caution, as it only provides a partial picture of the impact of management fashions. Full article
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Concept Paper
An Integrated Conceptual Model to Understand Suicidality among Queer Youth to Inform Suicide Prevention
Societies 2022, 12(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060170 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 920
Abstract
In this article, we apply and combine elements from four theoretical frameworks (i.e., Minority Stress Theory, Person-in-Environment and Risk and Resilience Framework, Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, and Intersectionality) to explain the problem of queer youth suicide through our integrated conceptual model, Queer Prevention [...] Read more.
In this article, we apply and combine elements from four theoretical frameworks (i.e., Minority Stress Theory, Person-in-Environment and Risk and Resilience Framework, Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, and Intersectionality) to explain the problem of queer youth suicide through our integrated conceptual model, Queer Prevention of Youth Suicidality Model (Queer-PRYSM). The need for this conceptual model is based on the current state of the literature, including mixed empirical findings on factors related to queer youth suicidality, no scholarly consensus on specific contributing factors regarding high rates of suicidality among queer youth (including queer youth subgroups), and the absence of a unifying theory to explain the queer youth suicide risk. To address these limitations in theory, evidence, and scholarship explaining suicidality among queer youth we present our integrated model with growing, current, relevant research with queer youth. Queer-PRYSM includes minority stressors specific to queer youth, mental health problems, interpersonal-psychological factors, socioecological factors (i.e., family, school, peers, and community), and intersectionality concepts. Queer-PRYSM is essential to understanding the relationship of distal and proximal risk and protective factors in queer youth suicide and developing evidence-informed suicide preventive interventions that can be incorporated into practice, policy, and system structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Health and Well-Being: Determinative Effects of Environment)
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Article
Assistive Technology (AT), for What?
Societies 2022, 12(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060169 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
Amartya Sen’s seminal Tanner lecture: Equality of What? began a contestation on social justice and human wellbeing that saw a new human development paradigm emerge—the capability approach (CA)—which has been influential ever since. Following interviews with leading global assistive technology (AT) stakeholders, and [...] Read more.
Amartya Sen’s seminal Tanner lecture: Equality of What? began a contestation on social justice and human wellbeing that saw a new human development paradigm emerge—the capability approach (CA)—which has been influential ever since. Following interviews with leading global assistive technology (AT) stakeholders, and users, this paper takes inspiration from Sen’s core question and posits, AT for what? arguing that AT should be understood as a mechanism to achieve the things that AT users’ value. Significantly, our research found no commonly agreed operational global framework for (disability) justice within which leading AT stakeholders were operating. Instead, actors were loosely aligned through funding priorities and the CRPD. We suggest that this raises the possibility for (welcome and needed) incoming actors to diverge from efficiently designed collective action, due to perverse incentives enabled by unanchored interventions. The Global Report on Assistive Technology (GReAT) helps, greatly! However, we find there are still vital gaps in coordination; as technology advances, and AT proliferates, no longer can the device-plus-service approach suffice. Rather, those of us interested in human flourishing might explore locating AT access within an operational global framework for disability justice, which recognizes AT as a mechanism to achieve broader aims, linked to people’s capabilities to choose what they can do and be. Full article
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Article
Do Families Exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences Report Family Centered Care?
Societies 2022, 12(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060168 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Background: Youth from marginalized groups may be less likely to receive quality health care services. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are known to impact long-term health, but it is unclear if there is a relationship between ACEs and receipt of Family Centered Care (FCC)—one [...] Read more.
Background: Youth from marginalized groups may be less likely to receive quality health care services. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are known to impact long-term health, but it is unclear if there is a relationship between ACEs and receipt of Family Centered Care (FCC)—one indicator of high-quality health care. To assess this relationship, this study used a nationally representative sample of youth from the National Survey of Children’s Health 2016–2017 combined data set. Caregivers of children who had at least one health care visit in the last 12 months (sub-sample n = 63,662) were asked about five indicators of FCC including if they felt the provider: (1) spent enough time, (2) listened carefully, (3) helped family feel like a partner, (4) provided information requested, and (5) showed sensitivity to culture. Methods: Logistic regression analyses examined the association between ACE score and each FCC quality indicator, as well between ACEs score and the overall FCC dichotomous score. Results: ACE exposure did not significantly predict access to a health care visit in the past 12 months. However, children with higher rates of ACEs were significantly less likely to receive FCC. Other factors that significantly predicted lower FCC included child race and ethnicity, insurance type, language in the home, and access to a regular health provider. Conclusions: Providers and health systems must identify, implement, and advocate for effective trauma-informed and care coordination interventions that ensure quality health care services for vulnerable children and families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Health and Well-Being: Determinative Effects of Environment)
Article
Human Resource Management, Employee Participation and European Works Councils: The Case of Pharmaceutical Industry in Greece
Societies 2022, 12(6), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060167 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Employee participation is a broad notion that encompasses sets of practices that enable employees to participate in the decision-making process on issues affecting them leading to a committed workforce. According to the 2009/38/EC Directive, a European Workers’ Council (EWC) is established in all [...] Read more.
Employee participation is a broad notion that encompasses sets of practices that enable employees to participate in the decision-making process on issues affecting them leading to a committed workforce. According to the 2009/38/EC Directive, a European Workers’ Council (EWC) is established in all undertakings and all community-scale groups of undertakings for the purpose of informing and consulting employees. This study investigates the impact of employee participation on employees and organizations and more specifically the potential benefits and the added value of participation for employees and organizations, the potential costs and threats of employee participation and the added value of EWCs in multinational subsidiaries in the pharmaceutical industry in Greece. The data gathering was carried out through in-depth semi-structured interviews with management, HR executives, trade union representatives and EWC representatives using a semi-structured questionnaire based on the state-of-the-art literature review. Organizations participating in the study are subsidiaries of multinational companies with an active European Works Council in the pharmaceutical industry in Greece. Findings suggest that there are potential benefits of employee participation practices for the employees and added value for the pharmaceutical companies and provide a useful perspective for managers and researchers in the field of labor relations and human resource management. Full article
Article
Capabilities Approach Application in the Development of Regional Rehabilitation Systems in Russia
Societies 2022, 12(6), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060166 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
In Russia, the rehabilitation system for people with disabilities (PwD) is developing rapidly, as resources allocated by the federal and regional authorities are increasing. The policy aims to integrate PwD into society through providing equal access to assistive technologies. To create a well-balanced [...] Read more.
In Russia, the rehabilitation system for people with disabilities (PwD) is developing rapidly, as resources allocated by the federal and regional authorities are increasing. The policy aims to integrate PwD into society through providing equal access to assistive technologies. To create a well-balanced regional rehabilitation system, the development measures include both indicators of actual life improvements (satisfaction of PwD with assistive technologies, comprehensive rehabilitation, facilitating access, etc.) and resources (staffing, costs, legislation, cross-sectoral cooperation, etc.). Panel data from 85 regions were collected (2018–2020). The analysis demonstrates that most systems need to be improved by applying the capabilities approach for cost-effectiveness. Full article
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Concept Paper
Collaborative Approaches to Addressing Domestic and Sexual Violence among Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in Southampton: A Case Study of Yellow Door
Societies 2022, 12(6), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12060165 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Domestic and sexual abuse have been in the academic discourse for quite some time. In recent years in the United Kingdom, the government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the charity sector have doubled their efforts to tackle this challenge through different approaches. One of [...] Read more.
Domestic and sexual abuse have been in the academic discourse for quite some time. In recent years in the United Kingdom, the government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the charity sector have doubled their efforts to tackle this challenge through different approaches. One of these approaches is the establishment of specialist services. A case study of these specialist interventions is two advocacy services within a community-based domestic and sexual abuse charity in Southampton named Yellow Door (YD). In line with the specialist service approach (SSA), the diversity, inclusion and advocacy (DIA) service and the Black and minority ethnic Communities (BME) independent sexual violence advisory (ISVA) service were created to address the needs of the BME community. Through the adoption of the collaboration, prevention and education approach, these services support survivors from this community, professionals and community groups to encourage more disclosures and support clients holistically. Recommendations to encourage more reporting and better ways to improve the needs of clients from BME communities were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Community Approaches to Addressing Serious Violence)
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