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Societies, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Many human infectious diseases also occur in animals. The virus that causes Covid-19 originates [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Obama Effect on Perceived Mobility
Societies 2020, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020046 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Using American General Social Survey data from 1994 to 2018, this paper examines how Americans of different racial backgrounds perceive their past intergenerational mobility and their, and their children’s, prospects for future mobility, before, during, and after Barack Obama’s presidency. We find that [...] Read more.
Using American General Social Survey data from 1994 to 2018, this paper examines how Americans of different racial backgrounds perceive their past intergenerational mobility and their, and their children’s, prospects for future mobility, before, during, and after Barack Obama’s presidency. We find that White Americans are generally less positive than Black and Latinx Americans about mobility, especially their children’s mobility prospects. However, racial gaps in optimism widened considerably during the Obama presidency, due to a significant decline in White respondents’ perceived mobility. A more detailed analysis of White respondents’ views by levels of racial resentment and political partisanship shows that the Obama-era dip among White respondents is concentrated among those who are racially resentful and among Republican voters, two groups that substantially overlap. For these two groups, perceived future prospects for their and their children’s mobility increased again during the Trump administration. Black and Latinx respondents’ perceptions of mobility are stable across all earlier presidential administrations, but decline somewhat with the Trump presidency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Narrative Reflections on Masculinity and Fatherhood during Covid-19 Confinement in Spain
Societies 2020, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020045 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 323
Abstract
This article explores the intersectionalities of masculinity, corporal identity, fatherhood, relationships, and bodily experiences in relation to a person who is living in a period of home confinement. In so doing, I draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into how embodied subjectivities are [...] Read more.
This article explores the intersectionalities of masculinity, corporal identity, fatherhood, relationships, and bodily experiences in relation to a person who is living in a period of home confinement. In so doing, I draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into how embodied subjectivities are constructed to advance knowledge on an embodied way of being a man in the context of a health world crisis. In the telling, I attempt to engage the reader by communicating the subjectivity of different moments in a provocative, fragmented, physical, and emotional manner. The results suggest that narratives, such as those presented in this article, contribute to understanding the continuous process of change of life and body projects due to the health crisis pandemic, and serve as a corporeal resource to challenge some of the (self-)imposed tyrannies around the body. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Job Satisfaction in Direct Support Professionals: Associations with Self-Efficacy and Perspective-Taking
Societies 2020, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020044 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Direct support professionals (DSPs) play a vital role in supporting and sustaining the life qualities of individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs). The occupation is often challenging due to a multitude of workplace deficiencies and certain challenging behaviors associated with DDs. The demanding nature [...] Read more.
Direct support professionals (DSPs) play a vital role in supporting and sustaining the life qualities of individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs). The occupation is often challenging due to a multitude of workplace deficiencies and certain challenging behaviors associated with DDs. The demanding nature of job duties can cause compromised job satisfaction in DSPs, which in turn potentially undermines the quality of care they provide to individuals with DDs. The literature is limited addressing how psychosocial factors relate to job satisfaction specifically in DSPs. The present study examined self-efficacy as a psychosocial correlate for job satisfaction in DSPs and how one’s disposition for perspective-taking functioned as a moderator for the relationship between self-efficacy and job satisfaction. A sample of 133 DSPs responded to self-report measures for self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and perspective-taking. The results of multivariate regression indicated a positive relation between self-efficacy and intrinsic job satisfaction in DSPs, and the relation strengthened as the level of perspective-taking increased, suggesting a moderating role of perspective-taking in DSPs. The findings provide insights for targeting psychosocial correlates as an important element in training programs aimed at improving intrinsic satisfaction in DSPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Two Types of Support for Redistribution of Wealth: Consistent and Inconsistent Policy Preferences
Societies 2020, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020043 - 03 Jun 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
This article aims to clarify the latent structure of support for redistribution. To this end, the author analyzed data from the National Survey of Social Stratification and Social Mobility in 2015 (SSM 2015), which was conducted in Japan, using finite mixtures of regression [...] Read more.
This article aims to clarify the latent structure of support for redistribution. To this end, the author analyzed data from the National Survey of Social Stratification and Social Mobility in 2015 (SSM 2015), which was conducted in Japan, using finite mixtures of regression models. The results revealed that the population could be categorized into two latent groups: one that determines preferences for social policies based on self-interest and another that does so based on ideology. Surprisingly, the results also showed that, compared to those who supported redistribution of wealth based on ideology, those who supported them based on self-interest were more likely to hold inconsistent preferences (e.g., simultaneous support for redistribution of wealth and free-market competition). This observation implies that, even when individuals want to determine their policy preferences rationally, they often do not have enough information to correctly assess the influence of each social policy on their self-interest. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Social, Psychological, and Philosophical Reflections on Pandemics and Beyond
Societies 2020, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020042 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 372
Abstract
This conceptual paper presents social, psychological and philosophical (ethical and epistemological) reflections regarding the current (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond, using an analytic and comparative approach. For example, Taiwan and Canada are compared, addressing Taiwan’s learning from SARS. Suggestions are made in relation to [...] Read more.
This conceptual paper presents social, psychological and philosophical (ethical and epistemological) reflections regarding the current (COVID-19) pandemic and beyond, using an analytic and comparative approach. For example, Taiwan and Canada are compared, addressing Taiwan’s learning from SARS. Suggestions are made in relation to current and future relevant practice, policy, research and education. For example, highly exposed individuals and particularly vulnerable populations, such as health care providers and socially disadvantaged (homeless and other) people, respectively, are addressed as requiring special attention. In conclusion, more reflection on and study of social and psychological challenges as well as underlying philosophical issues related to the current pandemic and more generally to global crises is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
Assistive Technologies: Social Barriers and Socio-Technical Pathways
Societies 2020, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020041 - 31 May 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Against the background of recent international regulation, the role of assistive technologies in the fields of independent living, education, and employment is analyzed in this article to propose a future strategy for a socio-technical perspective on their further development processes. Based on qualitative [...] Read more.
Against the background of recent international regulation, the role of assistive technologies in the fields of independent living, education, and employment is analyzed in this article to propose a future strategy for a socio-technical perspective on their further development processes. Based on qualitative expert interviews at the European level, the role and scope of ATs in these fields are described for three types of disabilities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, and autism spectrum disorder. The findings show that digitalization processes entail major opportunities and challenges for ATs in all three fields and that further measures are needed to bring technical opportunities to their full potential in adverse social contexts. Regarding future technology development, the authors propose a development strategy focusing strongly on the social context of the devices. Only in this manner, relevant “unintended consequences”, as well as social or ethical concerns, can be identified and addressed. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Bioprinting’s Introduction within the Context of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Malaysia’s Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 through the Right to Science
Societies 2020, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020040 - 30 May 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Advances in bioprinting have enabled scientists to develop tissue and organs for the formation of artificial ears and noses, the treatment of injured joints because of arthritis, and the provision of medical care to people with disabilities. Malaysia’s disabled population can benefit from [...] Read more.
Advances in bioprinting have enabled scientists to develop tissue and organs for the formation of artificial ears and noses, the treatment of injured joints because of arthritis, and the provision of medical care to people with disabilities. Malaysia’s disabled population can benefit from bioprinting because the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and Malaysia’s Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (PDA 2008) both include an indirect right to science expressed through the promotion of research and development (R&D), technology transfer, and new technologies. This qualitative study aims to identify relevant provisions within the CRPD and PDA 2008 that could support bioprinting research. This study utilises a multidisciplinary approach that combines biomedicine, law, and the social sciences. It analyses the travaux préparatoires of CRPD negotiations, the CRPD, the PDA 2008, and related documents for clues that negotiators once considered as the right to science. The results show that the travaux préparatoires of CRPD negotiations refer to biomedicine, while Article 4(1) (g)–(h) of the CRPD and Articles 9(1) (k) and 33(3) of the PDA 2008 refer to R&D, new technologies, and technology transfer, all of which indirectly imply the right to science and enable the introduction of bioprinting. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Educational Legacy of the Rio 2016 Games: Lessons for Youth Engagement
Societies 2020, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020039 - 28 May 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The promise of the Rio 2016 Games was to influence the entire population of Brazil, but the major impact was expected to be on children and the youth. The development of youth education programs promoting Olympic and Paralympic values was one of the [...] Read more.
The promise of the Rio 2016 Games was to influence the entire population of Brazil, but the major impact was expected to be on children and the youth. The development of youth education programs promoting Olympic and Paralympic values was one of the main commitments that organizers made in 2009 to host the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This article draws on the available literature on Olympic and Paralympic education and youth engagement and examines several of such programs previously implemented in such host cities as Beijing, Vancouver, and London. The purpose was to explore the ways in which implementing such educational legacy programs by the Rio 2016 and other sporting mega-event organizers can inspire and sustain youth engagement. The inductive thematic analysis was applied in the close examination of the content, strategies, and outcomes of the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic education program. The results suggest that to leave an enduring youth legacy, policymakers, future mega-event organizers, and educators need to understand it as a continued endeavor beyond the hosting period and embed the related educational efforts into broader educational and youth-focused structures. This article also outlines lessons for youth engagement that can be drawn from Rio’s and other host cities’ Olympic and Paralympic education practices. Full article
Open AccessArticle
eLearning 4.0 as a Sustainability Strategy for Generation Z Language Learners: Applied Linguistics of Second Language Acquisition in Younger Adults
Societies 2020, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020038 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The implementation of various eLearning platforms has seen an incredible and unprecedented rise in the past decade in our universities. The aim of this pilot research study is to explore the gap in second language acquisition research for technologically savvy Generation Z, whose [...] Read more.
The implementation of various eLearning platforms has seen an incredible and unprecedented rise in the past decade in our universities. The aim of this pilot research study is to explore the gap in second language acquisition research for technologically savvy Generation Z, whose members use modern technologies, especially mobile applications, in their learning process in a massive way. More specifically, the authors focus on students’ perceptions of the use of traditional and blended learning supported by an eLearning course in order to reveal students’ attitudes to and expectations from these learning modalities. Altogether, 40 university students participated in an experiment. The findings clearly show that the present eLearning platform is no longer an attractive option for students of Generation Z since these students want to participate in the creation of its content and collaborate and interact with each other in ways they are used to with other social media platforms such as Facebook. The implications of the research are important for educators and designers of various eLearning courses who need to take this into account. Further implications suggest a new approach to the exploitation of eLearning platform connected to Web 4.0. The basic principle of the new approach is to use these platforms and should harness all the possibilities of artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, and computational linguistics. In conclusion, the study reflects the basic and pragmatic principles upon which eLearning 4.0 should be based in order to become a more efficient tool for modern education and sustainability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Welcome to Canada: Why Are Family Emergency Shelters ‘Home’ for Recent Newcomers?
Societies 2020, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020037 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Although Canada is recognized internationally as a leader in immigration policy, supports are not responsive to the traumatic experiences of many newcomers. Many mothers and children arriving in Canada are at elevated risk of homelessness. Methods: This study utilized a community-engaged design, grounded [...] Read more.
Although Canada is recognized internationally as a leader in immigration policy, supports are not responsive to the traumatic experiences of many newcomers. Many mothers and children arriving in Canada are at elevated risk of homelessness. Methods: This study utilized a community-engaged design, grounded in a critical analysis of gender and immigration status. We conducted individual and group interviews with a purposive sample of 18 newcomer mothers with current or recent experiences with homelessness and with 16 service providers working in multiple sectors. Results: Three main themes emerged: gendered and racialized pathways into homelessness; system failures, and pre- and post-migration trauma. This study revealed structural barriers rooted in preoccupation with economic success that negate and exacerbate the effects of violence and homelessness. Conclusion: The impacts of structural discrimination and violence are embedded in federal policy. It is critical to posit gender and culturally appropriate alternatives that focus on system issues. Full article
Open AccessEssay
Training Teachers for and through Citizenship: Learning from Citizenship Experiences
Societies 2020, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020036 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
This article illustrates how one university-based initial teacher education (ITE) course sought to develop links with civil society organisations to develop meaningful active citizenship education. The purpose of the project was to enhance citizenship education for ITE students preparing to become secondary school [...] Read more.
This article illustrates how one university-based initial teacher education (ITE) course sought to develop links with civil society organisations to develop meaningful active citizenship education. The purpose of the project was to enhance citizenship education for ITE students preparing to become secondary school teachers. The article discusses recent developments in theorising teacher education 3.0 to ensure teachers are empowered to engage with a wide range of social and political challenges affecting young people and their communities. It then describes a small project that involved university staff and students in a local community organising project, bringing together a range of local community groups to work together for social justice. The article explores how student teachers working within that community organising group developed an increasingly politicised view of their role—as public sector workers in a politicised policy landscape; as potential agents for the promotion of democracy; and as political actors in their own right. The article concludes that these insights into practice illustrate the potential for a broader conception of teacher education, involving civil society partners beyond schools and universities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizenship Education and Civil Society)
Open AccessArticle
Human–Nature Relationships in East Asian Animated Films
Societies 2020, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020035 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Our relationship with nature is complex and exploring this extends beyond academia. Animated films with powerful narratives can connect humans with nature in ways that science cannot. Narratives can be transformative and shape our opinions. Nevertheless, there is little research into non-Western films [...] Read more.
Our relationship with nature is complex and exploring this extends beyond academia. Animated films with powerful narratives can connect humans with nature in ways that science cannot. Narratives can be transformative and shape our opinions. Nevertheless, there is little research into non-Western films with strong conservation themes. Hayao Miyazaki is a Japanese filmmaker that is acknowledged as one of the greatest animated filmmakers and master storytellers globally. The themes of environmentalism, feminism and pacifism resonate throughout his films. His underlying message is that humans must strive to live in harmony with nature, whilst presenting us with the socio-cultural complexities of human–nature relationships. I review five of Miyazaki’s films that explore human–nature relationships. One film was released with a special recommendation from the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) and the other won an Oscar. I explore the lessons that we can learn from these films regarding human–nature relationships, and how to create powerful narratives that resonate with audiences and transcend cultural barriers. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Challenging the Hero Narrative: Moving towards Reparational Citizenship Education
Societies 2020, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020034 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 754
Abstract
In his book, No More Heroes: Grassroots Challenges to the Savior Mentality, Jordan Flaherty claims the saviour mentality exists when “you want to help others but are not open to guidance from those you want to help”. According to Flaherty, the adoption [...] Read more.
In his book, No More Heroes: Grassroots Challenges to the Savior Mentality, Jordan Flaherty claims the saviour mentality exists when “you want to help others but are not open to guidance from those you want to help”. According to Flaherty, the adoption of this mentality results in charitable activities at individual and community levels without broader systemic change, leaving unjust power relations unaddressed. He argues that this mentality is underpinned by racism, colonialism and capitalism, as well as an unethical and historically problematic understanding of charity. With reference to the ongoing partnership work between Scotland and Malawi, this article summarises a conceptual investigation into the possibility that Global Citizenship Education perpetuates the hero narrative. Historical, political and educational research is connected to Bhabha’s theory of cultural hybridity to conceptualise a theory of Reparational Citizenship Education, in contrast to the “reciprocal” approach favoured by policy makers and charitable organisations in Scotland. It is argued that this conceptual shift involves taking the hero narrative to task and that this approach has theoretical and practical implications for the future of Global Citizenship Education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizenship Education and Civil Society)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Challenges to a Rights-Based Approach in Sexual Health Policy: A Comparative Study of Turkey and England
Societies 2020, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020033 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Politics around sexual health have been polarised in recent years, but the policy implications of this polarisation have not yet been examined in depth. Therefore, this article explores political challenges to a rights-based approach in sexual health policies in Turkey and England. Its [...] Read more.
Politics around sexual health have been polarised in recent years, but the policy implications of this polarisation have not yet been examined in depth. Therefore, this article explores political challenges to a rights-based approach in sexual health policies in Turkey and England. Its focus is on two domains: The prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and sexual health education. Drawing on an interpretive documentary analysis, this article reveals that although social attitudes to sexuality and the levels of overall alignment with a rights-based framework within the selected countries do differ, both face significant political challenges in putting a rights-based approach to sexual health into practice. While common political challenges include heightened domestic controversy regarding sexual health, the specific challenges take the forms of a broader conservative turn that undermines the autonomy of sexual health policy in Turkey (similar to the cases of Hungary and Poland), and neoliberal policy preferences coupled with local discretion and service fragmentation that create access inequities in England (similar to the case of Germany). This study concludes that implementing a rights-based approach is a complex political task requiring a nuanced approach that incorporates the political dimension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Sexual Citizenship)
Open AccessConcept Paper
How Colonial Power, Colonized People, and Nature Shaped Hansen’s Disease Settlements in Suriname
Societies 2020, 10(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020032 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 608
Abstract
According to the Dutch colonizers in Suriname, leprosy (or Hansen’s disease) was highly contagious and transmitted from human-to-human. A “cordon sanitaire” was constructed around the patients, mainly African slaves and Asian indentured laborers and their descendants. They were tracked down and [...] Read more.
According to the Dutch colonizers in Suriname, leprosy (or Hansen’s disease) was highly contagious and transmitted from human-to-human. A “cordon sanitaire” was constructed around the patients, mainly African slaves and Asian indentured laborers and their descendants. They were tracked down and incarcerated in remote leprosy settlements located in the rainforest. Some patients obeyed the authorities while others resisted and rebelled. Their narratives, revealing conceptual entanglement of the disease with their culture and the Surinamese natural environment, contain important information for understanding their world and their life inside and outside of leprosy settlements. They combined traditional health practices and medicinal plants from their natural habitat with biomedical treatments (practicing medical pluralism). They believed in a diversity of disease explanations, predominantly the taboo concepts treef, tyina, and totem animals associated with their natural habitat (the Surinamese biome). Some of their imaginary explanations (e.g., “leprosy is carried and/or transmitted through soil and certain animals”) show a surprising analogy with recent findings from leprosy scientists. Our research shows that nature contributes to shaping the world of Hansen’s disease patients. An ecological approach can make a valuable contribution to understanding their world. Comparative historical and anthropological research needs to be conducted to map the influence of different biomes on local explanatory models. The now deserted Hansen’s disease settlements and their natural environments are interesting research sites and important places of cultural heritage. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Unconscious Gender Bias in Academia: Scarcity of Empirical Evidence
Societies 2020, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020031 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Implicit or unconscious bias is commonly proposed to be responsible for women’s underrepresentation in academia. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and discuss the evidence supporting this proposition. Publications about unconscious/implicit gender bias in academia indexed in Scopus or psycInfo [...] Read more.
Implicit or unconscious bias is commonly proposed to be responsible for women’s underrepresentation in academia. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and discuss the evidence supporting this proposition. Publications about unconscious/implicit gender bias in academia indexed in Scopus or psycInfo up to February 2020 were identified. More than half were published in the period 2018–2020. Studies reporting empirical data were scrutinized for data, as well as analyses showing an association of a measure of implicit or unconscious bias and lesser employment or career opportunities in academia for women than for men. No studies reported empirical evidence as thus defined. Reviews of unconscious bias identified via informal searches referred exclusively to studies that did not self-identify as addressing unconscious bias. Reinterpretations and misrepresentations of studies were common in these reviews. More empirical evidence about unconscious gender bias in academia is needed. With the present state of knowledge, caution should be exercised when interpreting data about gender gaps in academia. Ascribing observed gender gaps to unconscious bias is unsupported by the scientific literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shadow Management: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Legitimacy through Ombudsmen with Case Studies from Swedish Higher Education
Societies 2020, 10(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020030 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 577
Abstract
We argue that the neoliberal tradition and new public management reforms of the public sector effectively erode the core (liberal) democratic values of the rule of law and transparency. The tension between public law and managerially-influenced governmental policy is in practice resolved by [...] Read more.
We argue that the neoliberal tradition and new public management reforms of the public sector effectively erode the core (liberal) democratic values of the rule of law and transparency. The tension between public law and managerially-influenced governmental policy is in practice resolved by the emergence of what we call “shadow management” in public administration, whereby managerial decisions that clash with constitutional and administrative law are dealt with in internal memos or consultancy reports and hidden from public view. The consequence is a duality in the public sector, which potentially reduces public trust in institutions and undermines their democratic legitimacy. Finally, we argue that when governmental neoliberal policy clashes with legal requirements, the likely effect is that the popular institution of the (governmental or parliamentary) ombudsman, originally introduced for legal supervision over civil servants, takes on the new deceptive role of providing pseudo-legal justification for neoliberal reform, making neoliberalism and ombudsmen a particularly problematic combination from a democratic and legal perspective. We support our contentions by a case study of Swedish higher education and hypothesize that the mechanisms we highlight are general in nature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Are Danes’ Immigration Policy Preferences Based on Accurate Stereotypes?
Societies 2020, 10(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10020029 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 2357
Abstract
Stereotypes about 32 country-of-origin groups were measured using an online survey of the adult, non-elderly Danish population (n = 476 after quality control). Participants were asked to estimate each group’s net fiscal contribution in Denmark. These estimates were then compared to the [...] Read more.
Stereotypes about 32 country-of-origin groups were measured using an online survey of the adult, non-elderly Danish population (n = 476 after quality control). Participants were asked to estimate each group’s net fiscal contribution in Denmark. These estimates were then compared to the actual net fiscal contributions for the 32 groups, taken from a report by the Danish Ministry of Finance. Stereotypes were found to be highly accurate, both at the aggregate level (r = 0.81) and at the individual level (median r = 0.62). Interestingly, participants over- rather than underestimated the net fiscal contributions of groups from countries with a higher percentage of Muslims. Indeed, this was true at both the aggregate and individual levels (r = −0.25 and median r = −0.49, respectively). Participants were also asked to say how many immigrants from each group should be admitted to Denmark. There was a very strong correlation between participants’ aggregate immigration policy preferences and their estimates of the 32 groups’ fiscal contributions (r = 0.98), suggesting that their preferences partly reflect accurate stereotypes. Most of the analyses were pre-registered. Full article
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