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Insects 2018, 9(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9030109

Evaluation of Eosin-Methylene Blue as a Photosensitizer for Larval Control of Aedes aegypti by a Photodynamic Process

1
Grupo de Óptica e Fotônica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CP 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900, Brazil
2
Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, CP 533, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil
3
Grupo de Espectroscopia e Bioinformática Aplicados a Biodiversidade e a Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, CP 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Mosquito Biology: From Molecules to Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is a competent vector for transmitting important viral diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Several strategies have been applied to avoid Ae. aegypti proliferation by using environmental management, biological, and chemical approaches. However, the development of new methods for effective control of the insect vector population is still needed. Photodynamic control is an alternative way to control the vector population by using a physical approach based on the larval phototoxicity of a photosensitizer. In this context, the present study evaluated the use of eosin-methylene blue (EMB) as a new photosensitizer for photodynamic control of Ae. aegypti larval populations. The photodynamic assays were performed submitting Ae. aegypti third-instar larvae to different EMB concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, and 100.0 µg mL−1) in combination of three different light doses (24.3, 48.6, and 97.2 J cm−2) under either white-light radiation from RGB LEDs or sunlight. The results demonstrated that EMB presented a rapid internalization into the larvae and was phototoxic. The photodynamic action induced 100% of larval mortality after about 40 min of sunlight irradiation even using low EMB concentration (0.5 µg mL−1). The findings reveal EMB as an effective photoactive compound to control larval populations of Ae. aegypti by photodynamic process induced by either sunlight or white-light from RGB LEDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; larval control; photodynamic process; eosin-methylene blue; sunlight Aedes aegypti; larval control; photodynamic process; eosin-methylene blue; sunlight
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lima, A.R.; Silva, C.M.; Caires, C.S.A.; Prado, E.D.; Rocha, L.R.P.; Cabrini, I.; Arruda, E.J.; Oliveira, S.L.; Caires, A.R.L. Evaluation of Eosin-Methylene Blue as a Photosensitizer for Larval Control of Aedes aegypti by a Photodynamic Process. Insects 2018, 9, 109.

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