Next Article in Journal
Susceptibility of Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi
Next Article in Special Issue
Transmission Success of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Used in Pest Control
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Secretion Systems and Secreted Proteins in Gram-Negative Entomopathogenic Bacteria: Their Roles in Insect Virulence and Beyond
Open AccessArticle

Prediction of Sporulation and Germination by the Spider Mite Pathogenic Fungus Neozygites floridana (Neozygitomycetes: Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) Based on Temperature, Humidity and Time

1
Department of Entomology and Acarology; ESALQ-University of São Paulo (USP), Av Padua Dias, 11 P.O. Box 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, Brazil
2
Koppert Biological Systems Brazil, Microbiology Product & Development Department, Rodovia Margarida da Graça Martins km 17,5 s/n (SP 135-Estrada Tupi), P.O. Box 35. 13400-970 Piracicaba SP, Brazil
3
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, W23 HW31 Co. Kildare, Ireland
4
Department of Exact Sciences, ESALQ-University of São Paulo (USP), Av Padua Dias, 11 P.O. Box 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, Brazil
5
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, Høgskoleveien 7, N-1431 Ås, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2018, 9(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020069
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Underlying Transmission of Insect Pathogens)
Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment. In the detached leaf assay, a significant number of conidia were produced at 90% RH but the highest total number of primary conidia and proportion of capilliconidia was found at 95 and 100% RH at 25 °C. Positive temperature and RH effects were observed and conidia production was highest in the 8 to 12 h interval. The semi-field experiment showed that for a >90% probability of N. floridana sporulation, a minimum of 6 h with RH >90% and 10 h with temperatures >21 °C, or 6 h with temperatures >21 °C and 15 h with RH >90% was needed. Our study identified suitable conditions for primary- and capilliconidia production in this Brazilian N. floridana isolate. This information provides an important base for building models of a Decision Support System (DSS) where this natural enemy may be used as a tool in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and a base for developing in vivo production systems of N. floridana. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic factors; microbial control; Tetranychidae; Entomophthorales; phytobiome; sporulation; integrated pest management (IPM); Decision Support System (DSS) abiotic factors; microbial control; Tetranychidae; Entomophthorales; phytobiome; sporulation; integrated pest management (IPM); Decision Support System (DSS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Castro, T.; Moral, R.D.A.; Demétrio, C.G.B.; Delalibera, I.; Klingen, I. Prediction of Sporulation and Germination by the Spider Mite Pathogenic Fungus Neozygites floridana (Neozygitomycetes: Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) Based on Temperature, Humidity and Time. Insects 2018, 9, 69.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop