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Article

Combined Effects of Pesticides and Electromagnetic-Fields on Honeybees: Multi-Stress Exposure

1
Department of Food, Environment and Nutritional Sciences (DEFENS), University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
4
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna “Bruno Ubertini”, 25124 Brescia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alberto Satta and Panagiotis Theodorou
Insects 2021, 12(8), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080716
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybees and Wild Bees Health)
Multi-stress conditions are considered the most putative cause of honeybee decline. The ongoing reduction of domestic and natural pollinators is considered a very severe signal of the current loss of biodiversity, and it requires a broad research effort to clarify the causes. In this research, the combined effects of two possible stress sources for bees, pesticides and electromagnetic fields (multi-stress conditions) were analyzed by a field trial. After one year of monitoring, a complex picture of several induced effects was present, especially in the multi-stress site, such as disease appearance (American foulbrood), higher mortality in the underbaskets (common to pesticide-stress site), behavioral alterations (queen changes, excess of both drone-brood deposition and honey storage) and biochemical anomalies (higher ALP activity at the end of the season). The multi-stress site showed the worst health condition of the bee colonies, with only one alive at the end of the experimentation out of the four ones present at the beginning.
Honeybee and general pollinator decline is extensively reported in many countries, adding new concern to the general biodiversity loss. Many studies were addressed to assess the causes of pollinator decline, concluding that in most cases multi-stress effects were the most probable ones. In this research, the combined effects of two possible stress sources for bees, pesticides and electromagnetic fields (multi-stress conditions), were analyzed in the field. Three experimental sites were chosen: a control one far from direct anthropogenic stress sources, a pesticide-stress site and multi-stress one, adding to the same exposure to pesticides the presence of an electromagnetic field, coming from a high-voltage electric line. Experimental apiaries were monitored weekly for one year (from April 2017 to April 2018) by means of colony survival, queen activity, storage and brood amount, parasites and pathogens, and several biomarkers in young workers and pupae. Both exposure and effect biomarkers were analysed: among the first, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); and among the last, DNA fragmentation (DNAFRAGM) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that bee health conditions were the worst in the multi-stress site with only one colony alive out of the four ones present at the beginning. In this site, a complex picture of adverse effects was observed, such as disease appearance (American foulbrood), higher mortality in the underbaskets (common to pesticide-stress site), behavioral alterations (queen changes, excess of honey storage) and biochemical anomalies (higher ALP activity at the end of the season). The overall results clearly indicate that the multi-stress conditions were able to induce biochemical, physiological and behavioral alterations which severely threatened bee colony survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-stress approach; honeybees; biomarkers; pesticides; electromagnetic fields; stress effects multi-stress approach; honeybees; biomarkers; pesticides; electromagnetic fields; stress effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lupi, D.; Palamara Mesiano, M.; Adani, A.; Benocci, R.; Giacchini, R.; Parenti, P.; Zambon, G.; Lavazza, A.; Boniotti, M.B.; Bassi, S.; Colombo, M.; Tremolada, P. Combined Effects of Pesticides and Electromagnetic-Fields on Honeybees: Multi-Stress Exposure. Insects 2021, 12, 716. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080716

AMA Style

Lupi D, Palamara Mesiano M, Adani A, Benocci R, Giacchini R, Parenti P, Zambon G, Lavazza A, Boniotti MB, Bassi S, Colombo M, Tremolada P. Combined Effects of Pesticides and Electromagnetic-Fields on Honeybees: Multi-Stress Exposure. Insects. 2021; 12(8):716. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080716

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lupi, Daniela, Marco Palamara Mesiano, Agnese Adani, Roberto Benocci, Roberto Giacchini, Paolo Parenti, Giovanni Zambon, Antonio Lavazza, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Stefano Bassi, Mario Colombo, and Paolo Tremolada. 2021. "Combined Effects of Pesticides and Electromagnetic-Fields on Honeybees: Multi-Stress Exposure" Insects 12, no. 8: 716. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080716

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