Next Article in Journal
Bacteria Belonging to Pseudomonas typographi sp. nov. from the Bark Beetle Ips typographus Have Genomic Potential to Aid in the Host Ecology
Next Article in Special Issue
Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Favors Its Spread by Changing Host Preference of the Insect Vector
Previous Article in Journal
Beauveria bassiana Multifunction as an Endophyte: Growth Promotion and Biologic Control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Tomato
Previous Article in Special Issue
Foliar Spraying of Tomato Plants with Systemic Insecticides: Effects on Feeding Behavior, Mortality and Oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Inoculation Efficiency of Tomato Chlorosis Virus
Article

Temporal Dynamics of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’ Load in the Insect Vector Cacopsylla melanoneura

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari (DISAFA), University of Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(9), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090592
Received: 1 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens)
Cacopsylla melanoneura is a psyllid vector of the phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, the causal agent of apple proliferation. It spends part of the year in apple orchards, then moves to conifers for aestivation and overwintering. The aim of this work was to analyze the quantity of phytoplasma inside the insect body throughout the year, during different life stages, in order to assess the relative acquisition efficiency and the vector infective risk. The phytoplasma was detected in all the life stages. The phytoplasma load significantly increased during the period spent on conifers, but in many cases also nymphs and newly emerged adults contained a sufficient quantity of phytoplasma to consider these stages infective. The obtained results allow us to optimize control strategies against the vector and thus against the spread of the disease.
The transmission of phytoplasmas is the result of an intricate interplay involving pathogens, insect vectors and host plants. Knowledge of the vector’s competence during its lifespan allows us to define more sustainable well-timed control strategies targeted towards the most worrisome life stages. We investigated the temporal dynamics of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ load in Cacopsylla melanoneura in the different developmental stages in Northwest Italy. The phytoplasma load in the vector was evaluated in overwintering adults, nymphs and newly emerged adults after different acquisition access periods. Moreover, we followed the multiplication of the phytoplasma during the aestivation and the overwintering period on conifers. Our results confirmed the ability of remigrants to retain the phytoplasma until the end of winter. We also highlighted the high acquisition efficiency and vector competence, based on phytoplasma load, of nymphs and newly emerged adults. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the management of overwintered C. melanoneura as soon as they return to the orchards, but also to newly emerged adults, particularly in orchards with a high infection rate and when the migration to conifers is delayed. View Full-Text
Keywords: psyllid vector; acquisition; latency; vector competence; phytoplasma titer; apple proliferation; epidemiology; Northwest Italy psyllid vector; acquisition; latency; vector competence; phytoplasma titer; apple proliferation; epidemiology; Northwest Italy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Candian, V.; Monti, M.; Tedeschi, R. Temporal Dynamics of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’ Load in the Insect Vector Cacopsylla melanoneura. Insects 2020, 11, 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090592

AMA Style

Candian V, Monti M, Tedeschi R. Temporal Dynamics of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’ Load in the Insect Vector Cacopsylla melanoneura. Insects. 2020; 11(9):592. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Candian, Valentina, Monia Monti, and Rosemarie Tedeschi. 2020. "Temporal Dynamics of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’ Load in the Insect Vector Cacopsylla melanoneura" Insects 11, no. 9: 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090592

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop