Next Article in Journal
How Does the Male Penisfilum Enter the Female Copulatory Pore in Hangingflies?
Previous Article in Journal
First Comprehensive Study of a Giant among the Insects, Titanus giganteus: Basic Facts from Its Biochemistry, Physiology, and Anatomy
Open AccessArticle

Dispersibility of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Revealed by One-Individual Tracking in the Field: Quantitative Comparisons between Subspecies and between Sexes

by Atsuki Hiyama 1,2,3 and Joji M. Otaki 1,*
1
.The BCPH Unit of Molecular Physiology, Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
2
Laboratory of Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan
3
Japan Butterfly Conservation Society, Tokyo 140-0014, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020122
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
The pale grass blue butterfly Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has been used as an environmental indicator species for radioactive pollution after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Here, based on the one-individual tracking method in the field, we examined dispersal-associated and other behavioral traits of this butterfly, focusing on two subspecies, Z. maha argia in mainland Japan and Z. maha okinawana in Okinawa. The accumulated distances in the adult lifespan were 18.9 km and 38.2 km in mainland and Okinawa males, respectively, and 15.0 km and 7.8 km in mainland and Okinawa females, respectively. However, the mean distance from the starting point was only 24.2 m and 21.1 m in the mainland and Okinawa males, respectively, and 13.7 m and 7.4 m in the mainland and Okinawa females, respectively. Some quantitative differences in resting and feeding were found between subspecies and between sexes. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) model indicated that the dispersal distance was 52.3 m (99% confidence interval value of 706.6 m) from the starting point in mainland males. These results support the idea that despite some behavioral differences, both subspecies of this butterfly are suitable as an environmental indicator because of the small dispersal ranges.
Keywords: butterfly behavior; dispersibility; Fukushima nuclear accident; indicator species; one-individual tracking; pale grass blue butterfly; subspecies; Zizeeria maha butterfly behavior; dispersibility; Fukushima nuclear accident; indicator species; one-individual tracking; pale grass blue butterfly; subspecies; Zizeeria maha
MDPI and ACS Style

Hiyama, A.; Otaki, J.M. Dispersibility of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Revealed by One-Individual Tracking in the Field: Quantitative Comparisons between Subspecies and between Sexes. Insects 2020, 11, 122.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop