In addition to transferring sperm, male mosquitoes deliver several proteins, hormones and other factors to females in their seminal fluid that inhibit remating, alter host-seeking behaviors and stimulate oviposition. Recently, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and proteomics have been used to characterize the genes transcribed in male reproductive tissues and the individual proteins that are delivered to females. Thanks to these foundational studies, we now understand the complexity of the ejaculate in several mosquito species. Building on this work, researchers have begun to identify the functions of various proteins and hormones in the male ejaculate, and how they mediate their effects on female mosquitoes. Here, we present an overview of these studies, followed by a discussion of an under-studied aspect of male reproductive physiology: the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the composition of the ejaculate. We argue that future research in this area would improve our understanding of male reproductive biology from a physiological and ecological perspective, and that researchers may be able to leverage this information to study key components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, this work has the potential to improve mosquito control by allowing us to account for relevant factors when implementing vector control strategies involving male reproductive biology.
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