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Review

Nature of Acquired Immune Responses, Epitope Specificity and Resultant Protection from SARS-CoV-2

1
Institute of Medical Science, Department of Immunology and Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada
2
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
3
GMDx Group Ltd., Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
4
C.Y.O’Connor ERADE Village Foundation, Piara Waters, Perth, WA 6207, Australia
5
Melville Analytics Pty Ltd., Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
6
Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, University of Buckingham, Buckingham MK18 1EG, UK
7
Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara 81000, Sri Lanka
8
National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roger E. Thomas
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121253
Received: 16 October 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 20 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
The primary global response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been to bring to the clinic as rapidly as possible a number of vaccines that are predicted to enhance immunity to this viral infection. While the rapidity with which these vaccines have been developed and tested (at least for short-term efficacy and safety) is commendable, it should be acknowledged that this has occurred despite the lack of research into, and understanding of, the immune elements important for natural host protection against the virus, making this endeavor a somewhat unique one in medical history. In contrast, as pointed out in the review below, there were already important past observations that suggested that respiratory infections at mucosal surfaces were susceptible to immune clearance by mechanisms not typical of infections caused by systemic (blood-borne) pathogens. Accordingly, it was likely to be important to understand the role for both innate and acquired immunity in response to viral infection, as well as the optimum acquired immune resistance mechanisms for viral clearance (B cell or antibody-mediated, versus T cell mediated). This information was needed both to guide vaccine development and to monitor its success. We have known that many pathogens enter into a quasi-symbiotic relationship with the host, with each undergoing sequential change in response to alterations the other makes to its presence. The subsequent evolution of viral variants which has caused such widespread concern over the last 3–6 months as host immunity develops was an entirely predictable response. What is still not known is whether there will be other unexpected side-effects of the deployment of novel vaccines in humans which have yet to be characterized, and, if so, how and if these can be avoided. We conclude by remarking that to ignore a substantial body of well-attested immunological research in favour of expediency is a poor way to proceed. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; host resistance; innate immunity; acquired immunity; mucosal immunity; vaccination SARS-CoV-2; host resistance; innate immunity; acquired immunity; mucosal immunity; vaccination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gorczynski, R.M.; Lindley, R.A.; Steele, E.J.; Wickramasinghe, N.C. Nature of Acquired Immune Responses, Epitope Specificity and Resultant Protection from SARS-CoV-2. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 1253. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121253

AMA Style

Gorczynski RM, Lindley RA, Steele EJ, Wickramasinghe NC. Nature of Acquired Immune Responses, Epitope Specificity and Resultant Protection from SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(12):1253. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121253

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gorczynski, Reginald M., Robyn A. Lindley, Edward J. Steele, and Nalin C. Wickramasinghe. 2021. "Nature of Acquired Immune Responses, Epitope Specificity and Resultant Protection from SARS-CoV-2" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 12: 1253. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121253

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