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Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030046

The Frequency of Focal Thyroid Incidental Findings and Risk of Malignancy Detected by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in an Iodine Deficient Population

1
Department of Otolaryngology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
2
Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
4
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Cancer Research Centre, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
5
Department of Radiology, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach of Thyroid Diseases)
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Abstract

Incidental focal uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the thyroid on positron emission tomography (PET/CT) is rare but often associated with malignancy. The epidemiology of thyroid incidentalomas has only to some extent been described in countries with iodine deficiency. Here we report data from Denmark, a country with known iodine deficiency and wide access to PET/CT. All FDG PET/CT comprising the head and neck region, during 2014, were retrospectively reviewed, and patients with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland were identified. A total of 2451 patients had an FDG PET/CT of which 59 (2.4%) patients presented with FDG-avid focal lesions in the thyroid gland. Among the 59 patients with FDG-avid lesions, 33 patients (56%) received work up with ultrasound, thyroid technetium scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration, and/or histology of which 20 patients had a conclusive pathology report. Ten patients with FDG-avid lesions were identified with thyroid malignancy. The risk of thyroid malignancy was 16.9% among patient with incidental FDG-avid thyroid lesions. Our findings indicated a similar frequency of FDG thyroid incidentalomas and malignancy rates in an iodine deficient population compared to summary data from prior studies, studies mostly performed in geographical areas of normal or excess iodine supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Denmark; incidental findings; iodine deficiency; neoplasms; positron emission tomography; thyroid Denmark; incidental findings; iodine deficiency; neoplasms; positron emission tomography; thyroid
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Gedberg, N.; Karmisholt, J.; Gade, M.; Fisker, R.V.; Iyer, V.; Petersen, L.J. The Frequency of Focal Thyroid Incidental Findings and Risk of Malignancy Detected by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in an Iodine Deficient Population. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 46.

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