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Article

A Novel Earwax Method to Measure Acute and Chronic Glucose Levels

1
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Clinical, Educational & Health Psychology Department, Faculty of Brain Disease, University College London, Alexandra House, 17-19 Queen Square, Bloomsbury, London WC1N 3AZ, UK
2
Centre for Affective Disorders, Affective Disorders Research Group, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
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Departamento de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, 1781421 Coquimbo, Chile
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Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
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Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Sevilla, IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
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Service of General Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), 1008 Lausanne, Switzerland
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Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, 5MW2+PW Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, UAE
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Benöhr Design Creatives, Jollystrasse 5, 81545 München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121069
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
Diabetes is the fourth cause of death globally. To date, there is not a practical, as well as an accurate sample for reflecting chronic glucose levels. We measured earwax glucose in 37 controls. Participants provided standard serum, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and earwax samples at two time-points, one month apart. The specimens measured baseline fasting glucose, a follow-up postprandial glucose level and a between sample chronic glucose, calculated using the average level on the two occasions. The baseline earwax sample was obtained using a clinical method and the follow-up using a novel self-sampling earwax device. The earwax analytic time was significantly faster using the novel device, in comparison to the clinical use of the syringe. Earwax accurately reflected glucose at both assessments with stronger correlations than HbA1c. Follow-up postprandial concentrations were more significant than their respective fasting baseline concentrations, reflecting differences in fasting and postprandial glycemia and more efficient standardization at follow up. Earwax demonstrated to be more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting systemic fasting, postprandial and long-term glucose levels, and to be less influenced by confounders. Earwax glucose measurements were approximately 60% more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting glycemia over a month. The self-sampling device provided a sample that might accurately reflect chronic glycemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: earwax; glucose; glycated hemoglobin; diabetes; diagnosis earwax; glucose; glycated hemoglobin; diabetes; diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herane-Vives, A.; Espinoza, S.; Sandoval, R.; Ortega, L.; Alameda, L.; Young, A.H.; Arnone, D.; Hayes, A.; Benöhr, J. A Novel Earwax Method to Measure Acute and Chronic Glucose Levels. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121069

AMA Style

Herane-Vives A, Espinoza S, Sandoval R, Ortega L, Alameda L, Young AH, Arnone D, Hayes A, Benöhr J. A Novel Earwax Method to Measure Acute and Chronic Glucose Levels. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(12):1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121069

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herane-Vives, Andrés, Susana Espinoza, Rodrigo Sandoval, Lorena Ortega, Luis Alameda, Allan H. Young, Danilo Arnone, Alexander Hayes, and Jan Benöhr. 2020. "A Novel Earwax Method to Measure Acute and Chronic Glucose Levels" Diagnostics 10, no. 12: 1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121069

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