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Minerals 2019, 9(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020099

Ore Genesis at the Jinchang Gold–Copper Deposit in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China: Evidence from Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and H–O–S Isotopes

1
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
2
College of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830047, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract

The Jinchang gold–copper deposit is located in Eastern Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China. The orebody comprises primarily hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and disseminated ores within granite, diorite, and granodiorite. Three paragenetic stages are identified: early quartz–pyrite–arsenopyrite (Stage 1), quartz–pyrite–chalcopyrite (Stage 2), and late quartz–pyrite–galena–sphalerite (Stage 3). Gold was deposited during all three stages and Stage 1 was the major gold-producing stage. Copper is associated with the mineralization but has low economic value. Fluid inclusions (FIs) within the deposit are liquid-rich aqueous, vapor-rich aqueous, and daughter-mineral-bearing types. Microthermometric data for the FIs reveal decreasing homogenization temperatures (Th) and salinities of the ore-forming fluids over time. The Th for Stages 1–3 of the mineralization are 421–479, 363–408, and 296–347 °C, respectively. Stage 1 fluids in vapor-rich and daughter-mineral-bearing inclusions have salinities of 5.7–8.7 and 49.8–54.4 wt% NaCl equivalent, respectively. Stage 2 fluids in vapor-rich, liquid-rich, and daughter-mineral-bearing inclusions have salinities of 1.2–5.4, 9.5–16.0, and 43.3–48.3 wt% NaCl, respectively. Stage 3 fluids in liquid-rich and daughter-mineral-bearing inclusions have salinities of 7.9–12.6 and 38.3–42.0 wt% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 160–220 bar, corresponding to an entrapment depth of 1.6–1.2 km in the paleo-water table. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data (δ18OV-SMOW = 8.6‰ to 11.4‰; δDV-SMOW = −92.2‰ to −72.1‰) suggest that the ore-forming fluids were derived from magmatic fluids during the early stages of mineralization and subsequently incorporated meteoric water during the late stages. The sulfide minerals have δ34SVCDT values of 0.2‰–3.5‰, suggesting that the sulfur has a magmatic origin. The Jinchang deposit is a typical gold-rich gold–copper porphyry deposit. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid inclusions; stable isotopes; Jinchang gold–copper deposit; porphyry deposit; Northeastern China fluid inclusions; stable isotopes; Jinchang gold–copper deposit; porphyry deposit; Northeastern China
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Li, S.; Zhang, X.; Gao, L. Ore Genesis at the Jinchang Gold–Copper Deposit in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China: Evidence from Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and H–O–S Isotopes. Minerals 2019, 9, 99.

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