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Minerals 2019, 9(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020069

Adhesion to Mineral Surfaces by Cells of Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus from Armenian Sulfide Ores

1
Institute of Microbiology of SPC “Armbiotechnology” of NAS of Armenia, Gyurjyan 14, Yerevan 0056, Armenia
2
Aquatic Biotechnology, Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstraße 5, 45141 Essen, Germany
3
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany
4
Institute of Bioscience, Environmental Microbiology, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 29, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
5
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201600, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract

Bioleaching of metal sulfides is an interfacial process where adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are considered to be crucial for this process. In this study, adhesion and biofilm formation by several acidophiles (Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Sulfobacillus) isolated from different biotopes with sulfide ores in Armenia were studied. Results showed that: (1) these bacteria adhere to pyrite surfaces to various extents. A correlation between pyrite biooxidation and adhesion of S. thermosulfidooxidans 6, L. ferriphilum CC, L. ferrooxidans ZC on pyrite surfaces is shown. It is supposed that bioleaching of pyrite by S. thermosulfidooxidans 6, L. ferriphilum CC, L. ferrooxidans ZC occurs by means of indirect leaching: by ferric iron of bacterial origin; (2) cells of At. ferrooxidans 61, L. ferrooxidans ZC and St. thermosulfidooxidans 6 form a monolayer biofilm on pyrite surfaces. The coverage of pyrite surfaces varies among these species. The order of the biofilm coverage is: L. ferrooxidans ZC ≥ At. ferrooxidans 61 > St. thermosulfidooxidans 6; (3) the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis indicates that the tested strains produce EPS, if grown either on soluble ferrous iron or solid pyrite. EPS are mainly composed of proteins and carbohydrates. Cells excrete higher amounts of capsular EPS than of colloidal EPS. In addition, cells grown on pyrite produce more EPS than ones grown on ferrous iron. View Full-Text
Keywords: adhesion; biofilm; extracellular polymeric substances (EPS); atomic force microscopy (AFM); epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) adhesion; biofilm; extracellular polymeric substances (EPS); atomic force microscopy (AFM); epifluorescence microscopy (EFM)
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Vardanyan, A.; Vardanyan, N.; Khachatryan, A.; Zhang, R.; Sand, W. Adhesion to Mineral Surfaces by Cells of Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus from Armenian Sulfide Ores. Minerals 2019, 9, 69.

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