Given that normal filling technology generally cannot be used for mining in the western part of China, as it has only a few sources for filling gangue, the feasibility of instead using cemented filling materials with aeolian sand as the aggregate is discussed in this study. We used laboratory tests to study how the fly ash (FA) content, cement content, lime–slag (LS) content, and concentration influence the transportation and mechanical properties of aeolian-sand-based cemented filling material. The internal microstructures and distributions of the elements in filled objects for curing times of 3 and 7 days are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that: (i) the bleeding rate and slump of the filling-material slurry decrease gradually as the fly ash content, cement content, lime–slag content, and concentration increase, (ii) while the mechanical properties of the filled object increase. The optimal proportions for the aeolian sand-based cemented filling material include a concentration of 76%, a fly ash content of 47.5%, a cement content of 12.5%, a lime–slag content of 5%, and an aeolian sand content of 35%. The SEM observations show that the needle/rod-like ettringite (AFt) and amorphous and flocculent tobermorite (C-S-H) gel are the main early hydration products of a filled object with the above specific proportions. After increasing the curing time from 3 to 7 days, the AFt content decreases gradually, while the C-S-H content and the compactness increase.
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